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How Old was Aisyah (r.a) when She got married to Muhammad?

pbuh)PROOF #1: OUR TESTING TOWARD THE SOURCE Most of the stories which tell us about this matter were being told only by Hisham ibn `Urwah, who wrote it by the order of his father. There supposed minimal 2 or 3 person who wrote the same story or hadist. It is strange that no one in Medinah, where Hisham ibn `Urwah lived, until his 71 years old, had waited to told about this story, besides the fact that there were a lot of students in Medinah include the famous one Malik ibn Anas, never recorded to tell about this story. The beginning of this story was from Iraq people, where Hisham stayed there in his old age after moved from Medinah. Tehzibu’l-Tehzib, one of a quite famous book who discuss about the stories from Hadist tellers, according to Yaqub ibn Shaibah has noted : “Hisham is highly trusted, his story possible to accept, EXCEPT the stories he told after he moved to Iraq“(Tehzi’bu’l-tehzi’b, Ibn Hajar Al- ‘asqala’ni, Dar Ihya al-turath al-Islami, 15th century. Vol 11, p.50).

In his next statement Malik ibn Anas denied the stories from Hisham which recorded by Iraq people. (Tehzi’b u’l-tehzi’b, IbnHajar Al- `asqala’ni, Dar Ihya al-turath al-Islami, Vol.11, p. 50). Mizanu’l-ai`tidal, another book who also discuss as same as Tehzibu’l-tehzib has recorded : “When Hisham got older, his memory had a dramatic fell” (Mizanu’l-ai`tidal, Al-Zahbi, Al-Maktabatu’l-athriyyah, Sheikhupura, Pakistan, Vol. 4, p. 301). CONCLUSION: based on this reference , Hisham’s memory is very poor and his story after he moved to Iraq is highly unbelievable so his story about the age of Aisyah when she got married to Muhammad is not credible. KRONOLOGI: It is very important to record and memorized the important dates on history of Islam. Pra-610 M: Jahiliya (pra- Islamic era) before God’s order is received through Muhammad. 610 M: First God’s words through Muhammad. Abu Bakar receives Islam 613 M: Muhammad started teaching it in his society 615 M: Muhammad moved to Abbysinia 616 M: Umar bin al Khattab receives Islam. 620 M: It is told that Muhammad purposed Aisyah 622 M: Moved to Yathrib, next to be called Medina until now 623/624 M: It is told that Muhammad is married with Aisyah

PROOF#2 : The purposed of Muhammad to Aisyah According to Tabari (also according to Hisham ibn `Urwah, Ibn Hunbal and Ibn Sad), Aisyah was purposed in her 7 years old and married Muhammad in her 9 years old, but, in another section, Al-Tabari said: “All children of Abu Bakr (4 children) was born in Jahiliyah era from his 2 wives “(Tarikhu’l-umam wa’l-mamlu’k, Al-Tabari (died 922), Vol. 4,p. 50, Arabic, Dara’l-fikr, Beirut, 1979). If Aisyah was purposed in 620M (7 years old) and married in 623/624 M(9 years old), this indicate that Aisyah was born in 613 M. So based on Al- Tabari’s writing, Aisyah supposed to be born in 613M, which was 3 years after Jahiliyah era is finished (610 M). Tabari also said that Aisyah was born in Jahiliyah era. If Aisyah was born in Jahiliyah era, Aisyah’s age is supposed to minimal 14 years old when she got married. The point is Tabari has contradiction about his story. CONCLUSION: Al-Tabari is not consistent with Aisyah’s age when she got married.

PROOF # 3: Aisyah’s age compared with Fatimah’s age. According to Ibn Hajar, “Fatima was born when Ka`bah was rebuilt, when Muhammad was 35 years old… Fatimah is 5 years older than Aisyah “(Al-isabah fi tamyizi’l-sahabah, Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani, Vol. 4, p. 377, Maktabatu’l-Riyadh al-haditha, al-Riyadh, 1978). If the statement from Ibn Hajar is actual, it means Aisyah was born when Muhammad was 40 years old. If Aisyah married with Muhammad when he was 52 years old, then her age when she got married was 12 years old. CONCLUSION: Ibn Hajar, Tabari, Ibn Hisham, dan Ibn Humbal are being contradicted in each other, but it looks obvious that the story about Aisyah got married when she was 7 years old is only a myth.

PROOF #4: Counting Aisyah’s age with Asma’s age According Abda’l-Rahman ibn abi zanna’d: “Asma is 10 years older than Aisyah (Siyar A`la’ma’l-nubala’, Al-Z.ahabi, Vol. 2, p. 289, Arabic, Mu’assasatu’l-risalah, Beirut, 1992). According Ibn Kathir: “Asma is 10 years older than her sister [Aisyah]” (Al-Bidayah wa’l-nihayah, Ibn Kathir, Vol. 8, p. 371,Dar al-fikr al-`arabi, > Al-jizah, 1933). According Ibn Kathir: “Asma saw the murder of her child in 73 H and 5 days after that Asma died. According another sources, she died in next 10 or 20 days after the tragedy, or several days after 20 days, or next 100 days. The most believe is she died in next 100 days. “When Asma died, she was 100 years old” (Al-Bidayah wa’l-nihayah, Ibn Kathir, Vol. 8, p. 372, Dar al-fikr al-`arabi, Al-jizah, 1933). According Ibn Hajar Al-Asqalani: “Asma lived until the age of 100 years and died in 73 or 74 H.” (Taqribu’l-tehzib, Ibn Hajar Al-Asqalani,p. 654, Arabic, Bab fi’l-nisa’, al-harfu’l-alif, Lucknow). According most of the historians, Asma, the oldest sister from Aisyah is 10years older than Aisyah. If Asma died in her 100 years old in 73 H, Asma supposed to be 27 or 28 years old in Hijrah era (622M). If Asma was 27 or 28 years old in Hijrah era(622 M), in the same time when Aisyah got married, Aisyah supposed to in her 17 or 18 years old. Based on Hajar, Ibn Katir, and Abda’l-Rahman ibn abi zanna’d, Aisyah’s age when she got married with Muhammad was 19 or 20 years old. In Proof# 3, Ibn Hajar has estimated Aisyah’s age is 12 tahun and in proof #4 Ibn Hajar told against his first estimation that Aisyah’s age is 17 or 18 years old. So which one is true? 12 or 18 years old..? conclusion : Ibn Hajar is not valid in the story of Aisyah’s age when she got married.

PROOF #5: BADAR War and UHUD There is a story about the participation of Aisyah in Badr war which is can be found in Moslem Hadist, (Kitabu’l-jihad wa’l-siyar, Part: karahiyati’l-isti`anah fi’l-ghazwi bikafir). Aisyah, when she mentioned about one of the most important moments during her journey in Badar war, said : “when we reached Shajarah”. From this statement, it is obvious that Aisyah was the member of the journey headed to Badar. A story about her participation in Uhud war is mention in Bukhari (Kitabu’l-jihad wa’l-siyar, Part: Ghazwi’l-nisa’ wa qitalihinnama`a’lrijal): “Anas recorded that on the day of Uhud war, people could not stand close to Muhammad and on that day I saw Aisyah and Umm-i-Sulaim from far.” Again, this statement shows the presence of Aisyah in both wars. Uhud and Badr. Told by Bukhari (Kitabu’l-maghazi, Bab Ghazwati’l-khandaq wa hiya’l-ahza’b): “Ibn `Umar said that Muhammad didn’t not allow him to participated in Uhud war, because on that time, Ibnu Umar was only 14 years old. But when in Khandaq war, he was 15 years old so Muhammad allowed him to participated in the war.” Based from the stories, (a) People aged under15 years old will be sent home and not allowed to follow the war, (b) Aisyah followed the Badar war and Uhud war. CONCLUSION: The participation of Aisyah in Badar war and Uhud war was clearly indicated that she wasn’t 9 years old at that time but at least was 15 years old. Besides, the women who followed their husband to the war was had function, helping and support their husband and not just to be a burden for their husband. This also another proof about the contradiction of Aisyah’s age when she got married.

PROOF #6: Surah al-Qamar (means MOON. Surah is the name of each part in Quran) According to several stories, Aisyah was born in the 8th year before Hijrah, but according another source in Bukhari, Aisyah is noted saying this: “I am a young girl(jariyah in Arabic)” when Surah Al-Qamar is told through Muhammad(Sahih Bukhari, kitabu’l-tafsir, Part Qaulihi Bal al-sa`atu Maw`iduhum wa’l-sa`atu adha’ wa amarr). Surat 54 from Quran was told in the 8th year before hijriyah (The Bounteous Koran, M.M. Khatib, 1985), shows that those surah was told in 614 M. If Aisyah started her life with Muhammad when she was 9 years old in 623 M or 624 M, Aisyah was still a baby (sibyah in Arabic) when Surah Al-Qamar is told. Based on the information that mentioned above, Aisyah is a young girl not a baby when Al-Qamar is told. Jariyah, means a young girl (Lane’s Arabic English Lexicon). So , Aisyah, had became a jariyah not sibyah (baby), so she supposed to be in her 6-13 years old in surah Al-Qamar’s era , and based on from that she must be 14-21 years old when got married with Muhammad. Conclusion: this proof provides the information about the age of Aisyah when she got married.

PROOF #7: Terminology in Arabic language According the story from Ahmad ibn Hanbal, after the died of Muhammad first wife, Khadijah, Khaulah came to Muhammad and adviced him to remarried again. Muhammad asked him about the option that Khaulah had in his mind and Khaulah said: “You can marry with a virgin (bikr) or a widow (thayyib)”. When Muhammad asked about the identity of the girl who hasn’t married (bikr), Khaulah mentioned the name of Aisyah. For people who understand Arabic language, they will see that “Bikr” word in Arabic language is not for a young girl with the age of 9 years old. Bikr in the other hand is used for a woman who hasn’t been married and doesn’t have experience in a marriage, as in English language the similar word with it is “virgin”. So it is clear that the term for Bikr is not for a 9 years old girl. (Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Vol. 6, p. .210,Arabic, Dar Ihya al-turath al-`arabi, Beirut).

PROOF #8. Text Qur’an All Moslem people agree that Quran is a holy book (as same as the bibble for the Christian) where we will find the answer for all our questions. So we only need to open Quran to find about the answer about Aisyah’s age and her marriage. Is Quran allow or not allow the marriage of 7years old girl? There is no words which explicitly allow those kind of marriage. There’s words in quran which guides Moslems how to treat and educate orphan children : And do not entrust to those who are weak of judgment the possessions which God has placed in your charge for [their] support; but let them have their sustenance therefrom, and clothe them, and speak unto them in a kindly way. (Qs. 4:5) And test the orphans [in your charge] until they reach a marriageable age; then, if you find them to be mature of mind, hand over to them their possessions; and do not consume them by wasteful spending, and in haste, ere they grow up. And let him who is rich abstain entirely [from his ward’s property]; and let him who is poor partake thereof in a fair manner. And when you hand over to them their possessions, let there be witnesses on their behalf – although none can take count as God does. (Qs. 4:6) When a child is left by their parents, a Moslem is required to (a)feed them, (b)give them clothes, (c) educate them, and (d) test them about their maturity “reach a marriageable age” before trust them into managing the financial matters. In here very clear that no Moslem will trust a 7 years old girl in managing the financial matters means that 7 years old girl is not capable to married because they haven’t reach the “marriageable age” or mature in physicly and intellectually. Ibn Hambal (Musnad Ahmad ibn Hambal, vol.6, p. 33 and 99) stated that 9 years old Aisyah was more interested playing with her toys than took a duty as a wife of someone. That’s why it’s hard to believe that AbuBakar, a respectful Moslem would give his very own young girl to be married with 50 years old Muhammad. As same as difficult imagining that Muhammad was marrying a 7 years old girl. Another important duty in guarding the children is to teach them. Let me ask you a question : how many from us believe that we can teach our kids with the satisfaction result when they are still in 7 or 9 years old?? The answer is : Big Zero. Our logic said that it is impossible to teach them perfectly if they are still in very young age. Aisyah’s father, AbuBakr, is a wiser man who will follow what the Quran has stated and WILL NOT give his child to get married because she’s not mature enough. Also Muhammad will strictly refused those kind of marriage because it’s AGAINST the Quran. Conclusion: The marriage of Aisyah in her 7 years old age is against the statement in Quran about the Marriagable Age. So the story about her marriage with Muhammad when she was 7 years old is only a MYTH.

PROOF #9: The permission in the marriage A Moslem woman must be asked first about her approval in her marriage. (Mishakat al Masabiah, translation by James Robson, Vol. I, p. 665). In Islam, the approval from the woman side is a basic condition in leading to a legal marriage. It is beyond our imagination that a smart man like AbuBakr will approve the marriage of his daughter who not eligible enough to give an approval of her marriage. As stated in Hadist, Aisyah is more interested playing with her toys in her 7 years old age. Conclusion : Muhammad would not marry a 7 years old girl because the girl wasn’t mature enough to approved the wedding, as for Moslem woman who want to get married, the approval from herself is very essential. So there’s only one possibility, Muhammad was married to Aisyah based on her own approval to get married with him, it means at that time Aisyah was mature enough to realize the situation she would face, the marriage between herself and a man named, Muhammad. SUMMARY: There’s no tradition in Arab to marry their sons or daughters when they still in 7 or 9 years old. Therefore, it’s impossible about the story of Muhammad married with Aisyah when she was 7 or 9 years old. Clearly, the story of Aisyah’s wedding in her 9 year old age by Hisham ibn `Urwah can not be consider as a true story and the story itself against with another stories which already written in some ancient books which I already gave the references above. More far, there’s no reason to accept Hisham ibn `Urwah’s story as a true story when the other experts, include Malik ibn Anas, has stated that the Hisham ibn `Urwah’s story during his stayed in Iraq is not reliable. The comments from Tabari,Bukhari and Muslim show us that between them there’s internal contradiction about the real age of Aisyah when she got married. So, the history about Aisyah’s marriage isn’t reliable because an obvious contradiction was happening between the experts of Islam history. Also in Qur’an itself the marriage of woman or man who still not in their marriageable age is strictly not allow.

# posted by wiweka : Monday, April 02, 2007 11:11:00 PM


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