I plan on doing an apologetic series pointing out the problems with Islam at some point. One of the biggest concerns with attempting an undertaking such as this is a similar one we have involving those who attack Christianity or any faith for that matter. Conspiracy theorists are muddying the water with falsehoods and making it tougher than it should be. Zeitgeist is the classic example with it’s falsehoods about the birth of Christ.
This is one of the things they try to charge Islamists with…
The claim: “Allah, the God of Islam, is a Moon God.”
Flag of the Islamic Republic of Turkestan
The “Star and Crescent” are symbols of unity used by the Ottoman Empire of antiquity and adopted by Islam in later years. It has nothing to do with a moon god except for being part of conspiracy theories. More on this later.
Robert Morey first wrote about his “Allah is the moon-god” theory in The Islamic Invasion (1992) and then later reproduced it with minor changes in a twenty page booklet entitled The Moon-God Allah in the Archeology of the Middle East in 1994. The latter has fallen out of print, and Morey himself refers readers to The Islamic Invasion “for more information” about his moon-god theory.
Robert Morey first mentions the moon-god theory on page 42 of The Islamic Invasion. Here he provides the background behind his theory: he argues that moon-worship was the dominant religious practice in pre-Islamic Arabia. He later argues that the Prophet Muhammad simply continued worship of this moon-god. To buttress his theory, Morey argues that:
1) The Sabeans were the dominant religious group before Muhammad’s time.
2) The Sabeans primarily worshiped the moon.
3) The Quran itself mentions the Sabeans and their worship of the sun, moon, and stars!
These three points are used to argue that the Prophet Muhammad simply continued the worship of the Sabean moon-god. In Morey’s own words on page 42:
The dominant religion that had grown very powerful just before Muhammad’s time was that of the Sabeans’.
The Sabeans had an astral religion in which they worshiped the heavenly bodies. The moon was viewed as a male deity and the sun as the female deity. Together they produced other deities such as the stars. The Quran refers to this in Sura 41:37 and elsewhere.
They used a lunar calendar to regulate their religious rites. For example, a month of fasting was regulated by the phases of the moon.
The Sabean pagan rite of fasting began with the appearance of a crescent moon and did not cease until the crescent moon reappeared. This would later be adopted as one of the five pillars of Islam.
All three of these points are dubious. With regard to the first point, there is no proof at all that the Sabeans were the dominant religious group before Muhammad’s time. Robert Morey provides absolutely no proof for this statement of his just like many of the other claims in his book. Morey simply assumes that if he says something definitively enough, the reader will just believe him. This is how most myths and hoaxes become so widely spread as facts on the internet.
However, the truth is that the Sabeans were but a small minority in Mecca, to the point where just a few generations later the Arab chroniclers weren’t even quite sure who the Sabeans were, a confusion that continues up until this day. Therefore, Robert Morey’s starting point that the Sabeans constituted the dominant religious group in Mecca at the time of Muhammad has absolutely no factual basis to it whatsoever.
What little is known about the religion of the pre-Islamic Arabs is that they were polytheistic and worshiped rocks and idols. Says Professor Jonathan P. Berkey on p.42 The Formation of Islam(emphasis added):
The dominant religious traditions of pre-Islamic Arabia remained polytheistic, but little can in fact be known with certainty about them. There has been much debate among historians of religion about the origin and character of Arabian religion–for example, whether it represented a “primitive” form of Semitic religion, or instead a degenerate form of the more sophisticated traditions of the Fertile Crescent (paralleling the traditional Muslim account according to which Muhammad’s role was to restore a primitive monotheism associated with Abraham). There are signs of litholatry [the worship of stones] among the Arabs, although by the time of Muhammad most of the various deities had acquired faces and personalities. Several hundred Arabian deities are known from the Muslim sources, the most prominent of which were those identified by the Arabs as the three “daughters of Allah”–Manat, Allat, and al-’Uzza–a trinity which was, according to the later Muslim tradition, accorded a special place among Muhammad’s tribe of Quraysh and their allies around the advent of Islam, and to which prominent (although ambiguous) mention is made in the Koran. Behind the specific deities, the Arabs were also probably aware of Allah. For some he may have represented a remote creator god, possibly related to the Semitic El; some Western scholars have suggested (again, paralleling in a way the traditional Muslim account) that he represents a deus otiosus [a creator god who largely retires from the world and is no longer involved in its daily operation] who had over the centuries been eclipsed by more particularized and localized deities. Allah apparently played little role in religious cult.
It is in fact difficult to say much with confidence regarding pre-Islamic Arabian religion.
Professor Berkey’s quote is actually sufficient to refute the entire moon-god theory. Let us, however, focus on the following: Morey’s claim that the “dominant religion that had grown very powerful just before Muhammad’s time was that of the Sabeans’, who had an astral religion in which they worshiped the heavenly bodies” is not supported by the evidence. Where did Morey get his information that the “Sabean religion” was the predominant religious group before Muhammad’s arrival? No one knows but him.
The pre-Islamic Arabs were polytheistic and worshiped “several hundred Arabian deities.” They started out as stone-worshipers, and these stones eventually developed into anthropomorphic idols. The pre-Islamic Arabs worshiped many different gods. The moon-god was but one of many and not even the most important of them. As Professor Paul Fouracre puts it on page 320 of his book The New Cambridge Medieval History, the pre-Islamic Arabs “were animistic and varied; they worshiped stones, trees, and idols.” The fact that the pre-Islamic Arabs worshiped the moon doesn’t mean Allah is the moon-god any more than he is the stone, tree, sun, or star god.
So, why then did Robert Morey single out the moon, as opposed to stones, trees, the sun, and the stars? Is it not simply to buttress his conspiracy theory? Such is the modus operandi of the conspiracy theorist: facts that support a conspiracy are highlighted and exaggerated, while other facts are minimized or ignored altogether.
As for what gave him the idea in the first place, Morey most likely noted the crescent symbol often used to represent Islam, and this gave him the idea that Muslims worshiped the moon. The Moozlums use the symbol of the crescent to represent their faith, so they must then worship the moon! Quite simply, the moon-god nonsense is based primarily in this simple, simplistic, and stupid idea.
I’ve got a Dodge truck emblem on my cap so by using these powers of deduction, I most definitely worship Dodges. I like them, but not that much.
Scholars are unsure whether or not the Sabeans are to be considered synonymous with the Sabians mentioned in the Quran, as the Arabic spelling of the two words differs significantly. What is perfectly clear, however, is that neither the Sabeans or Sabians were the predominant religious group at the time prior to Muhammad’s arrival. Indeed, the early Muslims were themselves unsure who the Sabians mentioned in the Quran refers to, a confusion that hardly would have existed had the Sabeans/Sabians been the predominant religious group prior to the arrival of the Islamic religion.
Morey’s second point – that the Sabeans/Sabians worshiped the moon is also questionable. He passes this off as undisputed fact, when in fact scholars, both Islamic and Western, are not exactly sure who or what the Sabeans/Sabians worshiped. This is not surprising, considering that it is not even accepted who exactly the Sabeans/Sabians were!
As for his third point, Morey tries to invoke the Quran as proof of his argument, saying:
The Sabeans had an astral religion in which they worshiped the heavenly bodies. The moon was viewed as a male deity and the sun as the female deity. Together they produced other deities such as the stars. The Quran refers to this in Sura 41:37 and elsewhere.
In fact, verse 41:37 and the surrounding passage in which it is contained in says nothing at all about the Sabeans/Sabians. The Sabians are only mentioned three times in the Quran: in verses 2:62, 5:69, and 22:17. In each of these three instances, no mention at all is given of any moon-god. As for 41:37 which Morey mentioned, this verse actually is a slap on the face of the moon-god theory, as it reads:
And from among [God’s] signs are the night and the day, and the sun and the moon. Do not bow down in worship to the sun or to the moon, but bow down to the God (Allah) who created them, if it is truly Him you serve. (Quran, 41:37)
How much clearer could the Quran be? This single verse is enough to refute the entire moon-god theory: the Quran, the holy book of Islam, categorically forbids worship of the moon. Although this verse does indicate that moon-worship existed in pre-Islamic Arabia, it should be remembered that (1) the moon was but one of many objects the pagan Arabs worshiped and (2) the Quran categorically rejected and forbade such worship. Allah was not the moon according to Islamic theory; rather, He created the moon, along with the sun, the stars, and everything else.
In addition to 41:37 above, there are other verses along the same lines – verses that show clearly that the Quran teaches that the sun and the moon are merely creations of God (Allah) and not God (Allah) the Creator:
Your Lord is God (Allah), who created the heavens and earth in six Days, then established Himself on the throne; He makes the night cover the day in swift pursuit; He created the sun, moon, and stars to be subservient to His command; all creation and command belong to Him. Exalted be God, Lord of all the worlds! (Quran, 7:54)
It is He (God) who made the sun a lamp, and the moon a light. (Quran, 10:5)
It is God (Allah) who raised up the heavens with no visible supports and then established Himself on the throne; He has subjected the sun and the moon each to pursue its course for an appointed time; He regulates all things… (Quran, 13:2)
It is He (Allah) who created night and day, the sun and the moon, each floating in its orbit. (Quran, 21:33)
Not only does the Quran say that Allah created the moon, but it also says that He will basically destroy it on Judgment Day:
When is the Day of Resurrection? (Say:) When the eyes are dazzled, and the moon becomes dark, and the sun and the moon are fused together, then on that Day will man exclaim: “Where can I escape?” (Quran, 75:6-10)
The Hour draws near and the moon is rent asunder. (Quran, 54:1)
In yet another passage, one of God’s prophets–Abraham (Ibrahim in Arabic)–explicitly rejects moon-worship after he notices that the moon sets:
When the night grew dark over him [Abraham] saw a star and said, ‘This is my Lord,’ but when it set, he said, ‘I do not like things that set.’And when he saw the moon rising he said, ‘This is my Lord,’ but when it too set, he said, ‘If my Lord does not guide me, I shall be one of those who go astray.’ Then he saw the sun rising and cried, ‘This is my Lord! This is greater.’ But when the sun set, he said, ‘My people, I disown all that you worship beside God (Allah). I have turned my face as a true believer towards Him who created the heavens and the earth. I am not one of the polytheists.’ (Quran, 6:77-78)
Another one of God’s prophets, Joseph, has a divine dream which involves the moon (along with the stars and the sun) bowing down to him which would make no sense if Muslims understood the moon as God (God does not bow to His creation):
Joseph said to his father, “Father, I dreamed of eleven stars and the sun and the moon: I saw them all bow down before me.” (Quran, 12:4)
The moon (along with the earth, the sun, the stars, and everything else in the universe) bows down in worship to God (Allah):
Do you not see that everything in the heavens and the earth bow down in worship to God (Allah): the sun, the moon, the stars, the mountains, the trees, and the animals? (Quran, 22:18)
The moon not only submits itself to God, but God made the moon subservient to humankind (and therefore the moon cannot be God, since humans are subservient to God–not the other way around):
It is God (Allah) who created the heavens and the earth, who has sent down water from the sky and with it brought forth produce to nourish you. He has made ships subservient to you, sailing the sea by His command, and the rivers as well. He made the sun and the moon subservient to you, constant in their courses. He has made the night and the day subservient to you… (Quran, 14:32-33)
By his command, [God] has made the night and the day, the sun, moon, and stars all subservient to you. (Quran, 16:12)
The Quran explains that God created the moon to help humans calculate the months of the year and to make a calendar:
They ask you about the crescent moons. Say: “They are time-marks for the people and help determine the time of Hajj (pilgrimage).” (Quran, 2:189)
[God] made the sun and the moon for reckoning time. (Quran, 6:96)
An interesting factoid would be worthwhile to mention here: did you know that the English wordmonth comes from moon? AstronomyOnline explains:
Phases and Time:
The Moon has played a vital role in the formation of our Calendar. The word “month” comes from a root word “moon” or “moonth,” the time it takes the Moon to go from New Moon to New Moon.
It seems like the Quran’s understanding of the moon is pretty spot-on: the moon helps calculate the months of the year.
There are other Quranic verses that could be cited, but for brevity’s sake let’s move on to the next point…
Comic tracts. Sometimes they cause more trouble than they’re worth.
I’d like for the end result to take place here but not at the expense of pushing untruths. Jack Chick is a class A conspiracy theorist that even promotes the thoroughly debunked Alberto Rivera claim that Jesuits invented Islam. Some of the things he pushes in his comics defy common sense and logic. I’ve discussed Mr. Chick on this blog so won’t go into detail here. Really, neither Chick’s or Morey’s bogus material should be used to get the truth out. I’m not going to promote something if it’s only partially true. That’s why I toss out extra-biblical text that didn’t make it into canon because it contradicts God’s word at some point.
Robert Morey argues that the pre-Islamic pagans of Arabia worshiped a moon-god called Allah. The reality, however, is that there was a moon-god but his name was Sin, not Allah. Sin had absolutely no relation whatsoever to Allah. Bible scholar Rick Brown writes:
It is in fact true that before the coming of Islam many “gods” and idols were worshiped in the Middle East, but the name of the moon god was Sîn, not Allah, and he was not particularly popular in [Northern] Arabia, the birthplace of Islam.
Moon-worship was certainly not unheard of in Arabia, something we can safely say based on the Quran itself, which categorically condemns worship of the moon. In other words, one of the strongest proofs for the historicity of moon-worship comes from the Quran’s rejection of it.
No verse in the Quran links Sin or the moon to Allah. Instead, the only mention in the Quran of moon-worship comes in the form of categorical rejection of such a practice as mentioned earlier. Yet, somehow Sin and the moon gets linked to Allah without any proof or reason to do this. This is how Robert Morey draws conclusions for which no evidence was even suggested, much less established.
There is no clear evidence that moon-worship was prominent among the Arabs in any way or that the crescent was used as the symbol of a moon god, and Allah was certainly not the moon god’s name.
Similarly, some claim that Allah refers to the pagan idol Hubal, and that Hubal was a moon-god. This seems to be a case of throwing the kitchen sink at Islam and hoping something sticks: well, was Allah the same as the moon-god Sin or the pagan idol Hubal? Since Sin and Hubal were clearly not the same, how can Allah have been both? This exposes the insincerity of the anti-Muslim camp, whereby they will attribute whatever they possibly can to Allah and Islam in general, so long as it is something derogatory, even if it contradicts one of their earlier claims or other anti-Muslim beliefs.
Just as it can be concluded that Allah was not the moon-god based on the Quran’s categorical rejection of moon-worship, so too can we safely conclude that Allah was not the same as Hubal based on the fact that Muhammad quite clearly differentiated between the two. When the pagans of Arabia won a decisive battlefield victory against the early Muslims, the leader of the pagans (Abu Sufyan) yelled in triumph:
“Superior is Hubal!”
To which Muhammad replied in defiance:
“Allah is more exalted and more majestic!” (Sahih al-Bukhari, Vol. 5, Book 59, #375)
The above narration is found in Sahih al-Bukhari, the most well-respected book of hadith (prophetic traditions). When Islamophobes find a “useful” narration in this collection, they are quick to push the absolute authenticity of it. When a narration like this one is found in the very same collection suddenly they doubt it! [Hat tip: Saifullah et al.]
For example, Christian polemicist Timothy W. Dunkin disregards this prophetic tradition as mere “redaction,” giving absolutely no proof for this claim except his own whim. Thus does the conspiracy theorist construct and reinforce his far-fetched belief: whatever text supports the moon-god theory even in a convoluted and miserably indirect way is accepted, and whatever text clearly and categorically rejects the conspiracy theory (Quranic verses that forbid worship of the moon, hadiths that differentiate Hubal from Allah, etc.) is simply rejected. Once all contrary evidence is taken out of the equation, then aha!, see all the evidence points to Allah being the moon-god!
It is interesting to note, however, that not even Yoel Natan, author of Moon-O-Theism (and the most ardent proponent of the moon-god theory), could accept the claim that Allah was the same as Hubal. Natan admits that “Hubal was not a moon-god” (Vol. II, p.168) and that in fact “Hubal was Allah’s competitor” (Ibid., p.167), which is clear from the prophetic tradition we have cited above.
This is not to say that the pagans rejected Allah altogether. However, they focused their worship on idols such as Hubal, neglecting to worship Allah except in times of severe distress–for which the Quran condemns them (see Quran 29:65). Hubal had become the chief idol of the Kaaba, outstripping Allah in terms of day-to-day importance and cultic worship, even while Allah retained nominal supremacy as “Lord of the Kaaba.” Scholars believe that Hubal was likely a Syrian or Mesopotamian god that was accepted into the Arabian pantheon of deities, much like the Israelite god Allah was accommodated by the pagan belief system as the creator god (more on this later).
Islamic historians will tell you that Muhammad was intent on aligning the early Muslims with the Israelite god Allah and away from the pagan god Hubal, exclaiming the superiority of Allah over Hubal. This culminated in the eventual destruction of the Hubal idol by the Prophet Muhammad once he conquered Mecca. How could Allah be the same as Hubal when Muhammad declared Allah’s supremacy to Hubal, and even went on to destroy the idol Hubal?
The only “evidence” used to link Hubal to Allah is the fact that the Quran does not mention Hubal by name. The argument goes: the Quran repudiates al-Lat, Manat, and al-Uzza but makes no mention of Hubal; therefore, Hubal is Allah. This, as rightfully pointed out by M.S.M. Saifullah and Abdullah David, is an argumentum e silentio–using the absence of proof as a proof in and of itself:
…While the Qur’an railed against Allat, Manat, and al-ʿUzza, whom the pagan Arabs referred to as the “daughters of Allah”, it stopped short of attacking the cult of Hubal. Although such an argument can be applied to any of the pagan idols not mentioned in the Qur’an, such as Dhul-Khalasa and Dhul-Shara, the argumentum e silentio of Wellhausen became a rallying cry for the missionaries and apologists to claim that Hubal was none other than Allah. This is clearly a logical fallacy.
The verse in the Quran that “railed against Allat, Manat, and al-’Uzza” can be found in verses 53:19-23, which reads:
Have you considered al-Lat and al-Uzza–and the last of the three–Manat? What! Why for yourselves you would choose only male offspring, whereas to Him you assign females? What a bizarre distribution! These are nothing but names you have invented yourselves, you and your forefathers, for which God (Allah) has sent no authority for. These people merely follow guesswork and their own whims, even though guidance has come to them from their Lord. (Quran, 53:19-23)
Another argument is that the Quran mentions al-Lat, al-Uzza, and Manat by name but not Hubal and that this somehow means that Hubal is Allah. This is a very dubious claim, based only in the negative vacuum of proof.
It should be noted that the style of the Quran is very different than the Bible in that it does not generally name names–rather, general and generic references are made. To this effect, it should be noted that Muhammad is only mentioned by name in the Quran a grand total of four times. Only one of the many disciples of Muhammad is mentioned by name. The most revered disciple, Abu Bakr, is not mentioned by name a single time in the entire Quran; instead, his story is told using generic pronouns (the Arabic equivalent of he and him). Therefore, it is not at all surprising that the name Hubal is not taken in the Quran.
Secondly, if we were to accept the dubious claim that Hubal was the moon-god, then in that case the Quran does mention him in verses 7:54, 13:2, and 21:33, in which worship of the moon is rejected. After all, if we accept (as we must) the idea that the Quran in general refrains from naming names and focuses instead on concepts and stories, then in that case–if Hubal was indeed the moon-god–then he isreferenced in those verses. Here, the Islamophobic opponent is caught in a Catch-22: if Hubal was really the moon-god, then he is rejected in the Quran in those passages; if he was not the moon-god, then proving Allah was Hubal would actually prove that Allah was notthe moon-god.
Thirdly, the Quran mentions al-Lat, al-Uzza, and Manat in a very specific context: the passage condemns the pagans for attributing daughters to Allah even while they themselves prefer sons for themselves. Hubal was a male deity and therefore it would not make sense to mention him in a verse about daughters. Saifullah et al. write:
…The Qur’an is referring to the concept of “daughters of Allah”, and to mention a male deity like Hubal would be against the very argument the Qur’an is drawing attention to.
What! for you the males and for Him the females! This indeed is an unjust division! [Sūrah al-Najm:21]
The Qur’an uses irony to drive home a point. While many of the Arabs buried their daughters alive, as well as holding the position that women were inferior to men in all aspects, they still fabricated daughters for Allah.
Fourthly, there were over three-hundred idols worshiped by the pagans of Arabia, Hubal being one of them. The Quran doesn’t mention any of the rest of them; by the logic of argumentum e silentio could we argue that Allah was not Hubal or the moon-god but any or all of the many gods in the pantheon of deities? This indicates the flawed logic behind argumentum e silentio.
Fifthly, some argue that Hubal originated from–and is the same as–the Semitic god Baal. This is certainly something accepted by many anti-Muslim ideologues who wish to link the evil Baal to Allah through Hubal. Yoel Natan, for example, endorses the idea that Hubal came from–and was–Baal. If this was indeed the case, then the Quran does mention Hubal/Baal by name:
Will you invoke Baal and forsake the best of Creators, Allah, your Lord and the Lord of your forefathers? (Quran, 37:125-126)
In the process of trying to make this fantastic juxtaposition between Allah and the moon-god, it is attempted to attribute any and all negative points to Islam that they possibly can, often unknowingly furthering multiple, contradictory claims. The truth-seeker should doubt their sincerity, and refrain from taking them seriously. Whichever way you slice it, it is very difficult to link Allah to the moon.
OK. A lot of this blog entry is from the Muslim perspective and not mine. So if it sounds like I support Islam as a legitimate faith, that’s totally not the case. I’m not even convinced there was a historical Muhammad. Jay Smith, a Christian who deals in apologetics makes a very good case that the years don’t match up regarding the life of Muhammad and when the Quran first made the scene. It makes you question how this revelation could have been given to the man by the angel Gabriel if there were over a hundred year gap in the time frame.
This isn’t the only one of Jack Chick’s tracts that have questionable or disappointing content.
Robert Morey’s book is full of academic dishonesty and wholesale deceit. This is what Shabir Ally referred to as “deceptive methods” and “dishonest tactics.” Ally lists Morey’s methodology as follows:
1. Misquoting authorities,
2. Concealing evidence,
3. Filling pages with irrelevant information thus giving a false impression of establishing something,
4. Using logical fallacies to establish conclusions, and
5. Drawing conclusions for which no evidence was even suggested, much less established.
Ally criticized Morey for reproducing a quote without including ellipses (…) to indicate the omission of words. This, as we have seen, is a tactic that Robert Spencer has employed as well. Morey responded to Ally’s allegation of “misquoting authorities” by saying:
What Shabir means by “misquotation” is actually partial quotation. He thus confuses partial quotation for misquotation. This is sad as it reveals he has no command of the English language or the laws of logic.
Morey goes on:
The same is true of Shabir’s focus on if I used …enough times to suit him. Yet, he failed to use… when quoting me on several occasions! The point is: The presence or absence of … in a citation has no logical bearing on the validity of what is quoted.
One would think that Morey would be more cautious in accusing others of having “no command of the English language or the laws of logic,” when in fact he is absolutely wrong:
The failure to indicate any textual omission within the quote is always a misquotation and often makes a large effect on the meaning of the words.
Neither does the question of misquotation, partial quotation, or ellipses have anything to do with the laws of logic. Lastly, it seems that Morey might not even know what the word ellipses means, an assumption that seems reasonable enough considering his repeated usage of “…” which renders his sentences virtually unreadable. As stated before, perhaps he should exhibit a bit of discretion before accusing others of having “no command of the English language or the laws of logic.”
Clearly, a person who quotes books and omits words and phrases without so much as an ellipses is wholly unreliable. This is academic dishonesty, and would be considered fraudulent.
The same is true of Shabir’s focus on if I used …enough times to suit him. Yet, he failed to use… when quoting me on several occasions! The point is: The presence or absence of … in a citation has no logical bearing on the validity of what is quoted.
I did not find a single instance of Shabir Ally omitting ellipses when quoting Robert Morey, so this is a baseless claim. As for his claim that the ellipses has no bearing on the validity of what is quoted, this is also false. In this specific instance, Morey quoted Professor Carleton S. Coon as follows:
The god Il or Ilah was originally a phase of the Moon God.
Here is what Morey omitted from Coon’s quote (emphasis added):
The god Il or Ilah was originally a phase of the Moon God, but early in Arabian history the name became a general term for god, and it was this name that the Hebrews used prominently in their personal names, such as Emanu-el, Isra- el, etc., rather than the Ba’al of the northern semites proper, which was the sun. Similarly, under Mohammed’s tutelage, the relatively anonymous Ilah became Al-Ilah, The God, or Allah, the Supreme Being. (Carleton S. Goon, Southern Arabia, p. 399)
Shabir Ally pointed out this deception, saying (emphasis added):
A second problem with Dr. Morey’s approach here is that he left out of Professor Coon’s statement what would disprove Morey’s most important argument against the God of Islam. Morey is proud of repeating that Allah is not the God of the Bible but the Moon-god of pre-Islamic Arabia. It would have been inconvenient for him to repeat what Coon had said as follows: … “and it was this name that the Hebrews used prominently in their personal names, such as Emanu-el, Isra-el, etc…” Morey would not let his readers understand that according to Professor Coon the same name which in South Arabia was used for the Moon-god was also used in Hebrew names like Emanu-el which Morey considers a name for Jesus.
Robert Morey protests:
He also commits the “Tit for Tat” fallacy of arguing that if Islam falls because Allah was originally the Moon-God, then Judaism goes down with it as some liberal scholars feel that Elohim started out as an astral deity. But the issue of whether Elohim started out as the Moon-God has no logical bearing on whether Allah began as the Moon-God. He is using Elohim as a red herring to divert attention from Allah.
This is yet another example of an anti-Muslim ideologue invoking the familiar “tu quoque, tu quoque!” defense. Morey argues that whether or not the Judeo-Christian god Elohim started out as the moon-god “has no logical bearing” with regard to his basic theory, and is thus merely “a red herring.” This is quite absurd when we consider that the entire question that is being debated here is whether or not Muslims worship the same god as the Jews and Christians. It could therefore not possibly be more relevant!
In other words, if Robert Morey cites a source saying that Allah comes from El, and El was originally a moon-god, then in that case all Morey has proven is that both the Judeo-Christian and Islamic traditions worship a god (El/Elohim and Allah respectively) that was originally the moon-god. But, even in this case, Muslims worship the same god as the Jews and Christians–exactly the opposite of Robert Morey’s entire argument.
Morey writes on pages 10-11 of The Moon-God Allah in the Archaeology of the Middle East:
As Coon pointed out, “The god Il or Ilah was originally a phase of the Moon God.” The Moon-god was called al-ilah, i.e. the god, which was shortened to Allah in pre-Islamic times. The pagan Arabs even used Allah in the names they gave to their children. For example, both Muhammad’s father and uncle had Allah as part of their names. The fact that they were given such names by their pagan parents proves that Allah was the title for the Moon-god even in Muhammad’s day. Professor Coon goes on to say, “Similarly, under Mohammed’s tutelage, the relatively anonymous Ilah, became Al-Ilah, The God, or Allah, the Supreme Being.”
This is a logical fallacy if there ever was one. How does the fact that the pagan Arabs believed in Allah (and named their children after him) prove that Allah was the moon-god? It doesn’t. This simply does not follow, and therefore this is a non sequitur.
In fact, what Prof. Coon says is (emphasis added):
The god Il or Ilah was originally a phase of the Moon God, but early in Arabian history the name became a general term for god,and it was this name that the Hebrews used prominently in their personal names, such as Emanu-el, Isra- el, etc., rather than the Ba’al of the northern semites proper, which was the sun. Similarly, under Mohammed’s tutelage, the relatively anonymous Ilah became Al-Ilah, The God, or Allah, the Supreme Being. (Carleton S. Goon, Southern Arabia, p. 399)
Coon is saying that the word ilah had become the general term for god “early in Arabian history.” We know that this was long before the Prophet Muhammad was born, because Coon says that “it was this name that the Hebrews used prominently…”
Furthermore, Coon is saying that the word ilah became the generic term for god, and that the Prophet Muhammad called his god “Al-Ilah, The God, or Allah.” This makes it even clearer that Allah wasnever the name for the moon-god. If one accepts Prof. Coon’s quote, then all this is saying is that the word ilah (not Allah) was originally used for the moon-god, then long before Muhammad it had become the generic term for god and gods in general. This is not the same as Allah. As Shabir Ally concludes: “Obviously, then, al-ilah was not the Moon-god according to Coon but only according to Morey.”
* * * * *
The fact that even the source Robert Morey cites says that the term Allah is connected to the Judeo-Christian name for God is underscored by the modern-day reality that Arabic-speaking Christians continue to refer to God using the term Allah. Even the Arabic translation of the Bible uses the term Allah to refer to God. Does this mean that these Christians worship the moon-god?
Anti-Muslim ideologues attempt to counter this point by arguing that Arab Christians adopted the word Allah for God only after the advent of Islam. One anti-Muslim website, for example, offers the following explanation: “The name ‘Allah’ had permeated the Arab mind and became its supreme god. Thus the name slipped into the Arabic translation of the Bible.” We are told that this was either a mistake or happenstance, or alternatively that Arab Christians adopted the term Allah for God out of fear that they may be persecuted in the lands of Islam if they called their god anything else. Yet another theory is that certain “dhimmi”-minded Christians used the term Allah to appease the Muslims. Robert Morey seems to adhere to this theory, as his website whines: “Bible societies have even gone so far as to use the name Allah in the Bibles they produce for Arab Christians.”
However, these counter-arguments fall to the wayside when it is pointed out that Arab Christians used the term Allah for God long before the Prophet Muhammad was born. Professor Timothy George writes (emphasis added):
The word Allah is found 2,685 times in the Quran. Muhammad not invent the word. In fact, it was the common word of address for God used by Arabic Christians centuries before Muhammad was born. Millions of Arabic-speaking Arab Christians still address God as Allah today…Christians called God Allah long before Muslims did. (Timothy George, Is the Father of Jesus the God of Muhammad?, Ch.4)
Dr. Miroslav Volf, distinguished Professor of Theology at Yale University, writes:
“Arab Christians and Arabic-speaking Jews since long before the time of Muhammad have used the name ‘Allah’ to refer to God.” (Miroslav Volf, Allah: A Christian Response, p.82)
However the term Allah came into Arabic, we know from ancient inscriptions that Arabic-speaking Christians were using the [word] Allahbefore the rise of Islam…Even today, Allah is the Arabic name for God that is commonly used by Jews and Christians.
Brown goes on to say:
Imad Shehadeh (2004), director of an Arab Christian seminary, notes the oldest extant Arab Christian translations of [Biblical] Scripture use allâh, and that this practice is documented from ancient times until the present. This fact is well exemplified in the essays in David Thomas (2006a), especially (Kachouh 2006). Shehadeh notes the total lack of evidence that anyone ever used the term allâh as the name of a moon god. Quoting Montgomery Watt, he says the claim that “Christians worship God and Muslims worship Allah” is as sensible as saying “Englishmen worship God and Frenchmen worship Dieu”.
Many missionaries branded so-called Muslim forms of worship and religious vocabulary as wrong, without knowing that virtually all quranic religious vocabulary, including the name “Allah,” and virtually all the forms of worship, except those specifically related to Muhammad, were used by Jews and/or Christians before they were used by Muslims.
Brown comments on the Christian usage of theophoric Arabic names bearing the name Allah in them (emphasis added):
The hardest pre-Islamic evidence comes in the form of stone inscriptions that bear theophoric Arab names, i.e., Arabic names that incorporate a word for deity. The word one finds most often in the surviving inscriptions is ’lh, pronounced [ałłâh], and sometimes the shortened or Hebraic form, ’l. There is no evidence for a significantly different term for God used in place of this, such as Greektheos or Hebrew adonaior elohîm, although Yhwh is found on occasion, probably as part of a Jewish name.
He goes on:
The widespread usage of these terms in the two centuries before Islam correlates with the well-documented spread of Christianity throughout most of Arabia that during that same period (Guillaume & Ibn Ishaq 2002 : 18).
Brown offers one such example, a Christian man by the name Abdullah (slave of Allah) who livedbefore Muhammad:
For example, a leader of the Christians who was martyred in Najran in 523 AD is said to have been ‘Abdullah ibn Abu Bakr ibn Muhammad. Not only does he bear a theophoric name that means “servant of allâh”, he is also said to have worn a ring that said “allâh is my Lord” (Guillaume & Ibn Ishaq 2002 : 18).
There is archaeological proof that buttresses the historical evidence. For instance, an inscription has been found honoring a Christian martyr, “in which God is referred to as alah or allah.”
Robert Morey complains that ”[dhimmi-oriented] Bible societies have even gone so far as to use the name Allah in the Bibles they produce for Arab Christians.” Yet, Arabic Bibles have always used the word Allah for God. It is the exact opposite of what Morey claims: Arabic Bibles had historically always used Allah until recent times when suddenly some Evangelical Christians furthered the absurd idea that Allah is some different, pagan moon-god. But, all the ancient Arabic manuscripts we have of the Bible used the term Allah. This, even though the Bible was translated by different churches in different parts of Arabia. Brown expounds (emphasis added):
The New Testament or parts of it were translated many times into Arabic…The extant manuscripts date from the post-Islamic period, but there is evidence for pre-Islamic translations of the Gospel, although scholars disagree on the matter…
They all use the word allâh to refer to God. Since the Arab Christians were spread over a vast region and belonged to diverse and warring churches long before the rise of Islam, the fact that all of them used allâh to refer to God in the earliest surviving translations is an indication that the term allâh must have been in widespread use by Arab Christians in pre-Islamic times.
* * * * *
The next obvious question is: why did pre-Islamic Christians use the term Allah to refer to God? The answer to this is quite the slap on the face of anti-Muslim Evangelical Christians. It may come as a surprise to many ignorant anti-Muslim Christians today, but Jesus Christ didnot speak English (amazing revelation, I know) and would never have used the term “God.” Instead, Jesus spokeAramaic–which is a sister language of Arabic–and he referred to God as Alaha. Allah is the Arabic cognate of the Aramaic word Alaha. UCLA professor Michael G. Morony writes on p.528 of Iraq After the Conquest:
alaha (Syr.): god, used for God by Christians, cognate with Allah (Ar.).
This explains why Arabic-speaking Christians, even before Muhammad, used the term Allah for God. Brown writes (emphasis added):
The term allâh is most likely derived from the Aramaic word for God, alâh
Dudley Woodberry stated that the term allâh is derived from Syriac, which was the form of Aramaic commonly used in literature and Scripture in the Middle East from the fourth to the ninth centuries. (Forms of Aramaic had been the lingua franca for centuries, but Syriac took on the role of a literary language.) Kenneth Thomas (2006a: 171) supports Woodberry’s claim with the observation that“Western scholars are fairly unanimous that the source of the word Allah probably is through Aramaic from the Syriac alâhâ”.Arthur Jeffrey (1938: 66) wrote that “there can be little doubt” about this, and F. V. Winnett (1938: 247), an expert in Ancient Arabic, came to the same conclusion. Syriac-speaking Christians, most of whom speak Arabic as well, have had the same opinion, namely that the Arabic term allâh is a loanword from Syriac, and Imad Shehadeh (2004) has supported the argument from the perspective of an Arab Christian scholar.
The Aramaic word Alaha became Allah just as any word is modified when it is taken from one language to another. For one thing, Brown points out:
In Aramaic, God is called alâh-â, where the final –â is removable…Given the prevalence of Judaism and Christianity in Arabia, the term alâh-â would have been well-known, and one would expect them to have Arabicized it by dropping the final ‘-â’ vowel.
Even to the layperson, the difference between Alah and Allah is minimal, and only the most dishonest person would fail to see the connection between the two. As Brown comments: “It is normal for words to undergo some alteration when they are borrowed into another language.”
As for the doubling of the letter –l, Brown argues that this “was most likely prompted by…the Arab tradition of using epithets to refer to deities,” as in al–uzza instead of simply uzza. The definite articleal– (the) was added to the names of deities, and this may well have been the case for the Arabic-speaking Jews and Christians. Herein lies a great debate of whether or not the word Allah comes from the contraction al–ilah (The God), as well as the argument raised by Islamophobes that the word “alah” in the Bible is used as a generic term for “god”–even a false god–whereas Allah is the personal name of God for the Muslims.
Neither of these arguments is very relevant: whatever the case, it was the pre-Islamic Christians of Arabia who used the term Allah as the name of God. So even if it is true that the Bible did not use “alah” as the personal name of God, several hundreds of years later the Jews and Christians of Arabia were referring to their god by the name Allah. Therefore, Muhammad was only following the convention of the Judeo-Christian tradition as it had developed in the Arabian peninsula. To this day, Arabic-speaking Jews and Christians refer to God as “Allah,” using it as a name–as God and not god. Both then and now did (and do) Arabic-speaking Jews and Christians most commonly refer(red) to God as Allah; Muhammad would of course refer to the Judeo-Christian God as they themselves most commonly referred to Him as.
The (irrelevant) argument is raised for example by Evangelical author Timothy C. Tennent who writes:
On the one hand, Christians understand the word “Allah” as a broad term for God in the Bible, but not for the tetragrammaton YHWH, which is the convenantal name for God in the Old Testament.
Do Christians in their day-to-day lives, at home and in church, commonly refer to God as “God” or do they routinely use “the tetragrammaton YHWH?” All one has to do is listen to any Christian alive today, go to any church or listen to any Christian television channel, to see quite clearly that the most common way in which Christians invoke and refer to God is “God”–not “the tetragrammaton YHWH.”
Even Tennent himself refers to “God” as “God” throughout the very same book he makes the argument in, as well as on his website. Just as Christians in the English-speaking West most commonly refer to their deity as “God,” so too do Arabic-speaking Christians refer to their deity as “Allah”–and so too did they hundreds of years ago in Arabia–and it only makes sense (indeed, it can be no other way) that Muhammad would refer to their God using the most commonly used word they themselves used. Insisting that Muhammad should have used “the tetragrammaton YHWH” seems absurd when it is considered that the Jews and Christians themselves did not commonly do so.
* * * * *
Regardless of its exact etymological origin, the undeniable fact is that Arabic-speaking Christians used the term Allah for God long before the Prophet Muhammad was born. Amazingly, this is a fact that even Yoel Natan, author of Moon-O-Theism and the greatest proponent of the moon-god theory, could not deny. Natan thus entitles a section of his book as “The Title Allah As Used by Jews and Christians in Pre-Islamic Arabia.” Natan writes on p.594 of Volume 1 of his book (emphasis added):
Though Arab Christians spoke the Arabic language and they used the appellation Allah, meaning “the God,” they clearly were Trinitarian.
Natan admits that the Christians in pre-Islamic Arabia named their children Abdullah, which means “servant (or slave) of God.” He continues:
Arab Christians also used the theophoric name ‘Abdullah (“Servant of Allah”) as a baptismal name.
Even while he concedes that the Jews and Christians in pre-Islamic Arabia used the term Allah for God, Natan insists that the Prophet Muhammad was referring to another Allah when he invoked the term! What a fantastic explanation, especially when the Quran itself commands the Muslims:
Do not argue with the People of the Book [the Jews and Christians] except in the kindest possible manner, save those of them who are oppressive, and say: “We believe in what was revealed to us and what was revealed to you; our God and your God are one and the same,and to Him do we submit ourselves.” (Quran, 29:46)
What more proof is needed? This Quranic verse alone suffices to refute the moon-god theory, and makes it clear that Muslims worship the same God as the Jews and the Christians. The Quran offers religious criticisms of Judaism and Christianity, each time referencing Allah as the God of the Jews and the Christians. For example, the Quran says:
The Christians say, “The Christ is Allah’s son.” Such are the sayings which they utter with their mouths! (Quran, 9:30)
Elsewhere, the Quran says:
O People of the Book, do not exaggerate in matters of your religion, and do not say anything about Allah except the truth: the Messiah, Jesus, son of Mary, was nothing more than a messenger of Allah…Allah is only one Allah. (Quran, 4:171)
The fact that the Allah of the Quran is mentioned in relation to the Christian dogma of the Trinity and with relation to Jesus–coupled with the fact that “Allah is only one Allah”–proves that the early Muslims worshiped the same God as Jews worshiped and whom Christians refer to as God the Father.
There exists a multitude of Quranic verses that associate the Allah of Islam with God the Father of Christianity. In yet another verse, for instance, Jesus says:
“O Children of Israel! Worship Allah my Lord and your Lord.” (Quran, 5:72)
Even if we accept the fantastic explanation offered by Yoel Natan, that there somehow existed at least two Allah’s (one belonging to the Jews and Christians and the other to the moon-god worshiping pagans), the Quran itself is proof that the Islamic Allah aligns with the Judeo-Christian Allah. Over twenty “prophets of Allah” are mentioned in the Quran, each corresponding to a prophet in the Judeo-Christian tradition. For example, Adam (as in Adam and Eve found in the Judeo-Christian tradition) is mentioned in the following verse in relation to Allah:
The similitude of Jesus before Allah is as that of Adam; He created him from dust, then said to him: “Be!” And he was. (Quran, 3:59)
Adam ate from the forbidden tree in Paradise due to Satan’s influence, and he was thus sent to earth “for a time.” Adam turned to repentance to Allah, who subsequently forgave him:
Then Adam received word from his Lord, who accepted his repentance, for He is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful. (Quran, 2:37)
After forgiving Adam, Allah gave the following advice to Adam, his wife, and all his progeny:
“When guidance comes to you from Me, as it certainly will, no fear or sorrow will be felt by those who heed it.” (Quran, 2:38)
This statement of Allah to the first human being is considered the guiding principle of Islam, and the key to attaining eternal salvation. Whoever follows the guidance from Adam’s Lord and Creator will have eternal success. Based on the fact that this Quranic story corresponds closely (albeit with minor variations) to that found in the Judeo-Christian tradition, it can clearly be seen that the Allah of Islam is the same God as the God of Adam and Eve found in the Bible.
The Quran then speaks of Noah, another “prophet of Allah:”
We sent Noah to his people. He said, “My people, worship Allah! You have no god other than Him.” (Quran, 7:59)
So, the Islamic Allah is the same God as the God of Noah, who is of course the God of the Bible.
Allah is also the God of Abraham, which is why Islam is an Abrahamic faith. In the Quran–just as in the Bible–Abraham rejects the gods and idols that his father worships, and he says to his father:
“I dissociate myself from you and whatever you invoke besides Allah. I will pray only to my Lord.” (Quran, 19:48)
An even clearer proof that the Islamic God is not the moon-god (and another “I sunk your battleship” argument to the moon-god theory) is found in the story of Abraham. Before Abraham rejects the idolatry of his father, he had considered worship of the moon (as well as the sun and the stars) only to explicitly reject it:
When the night grew dark over him he saw a star and said, “This is my Lord,” but when it set, he said, “I do not like things that set.” And when he saw the moon rising he said, “This is my Lord,” but when it too set, he said, “If my Lord does not guide me, I shall be one of those who go astray.” Then he saw the sun rising and cried, “This is my Lord! This is greater.” But when the sun set, he said, “My people, I disown all that you worship beside Allah. Behold, I have turned my face as a true believer towards Him who created the heavens and the earth. I am not one of the idolaters.” (Quran, 6:76-79)
How could it possibly be any more evident that the Allah of the Quran is the same God as found in the Bible?
So too does the Quran make it clear that the Allah of the Quran is the God of other Biblical prophets and figures, including Lot, Ishmael, Isaac, Jacob, Joseph, Job, Moses, Aaron, David, Solomon, Elijah, Elisha, Jonah, and John the Baptist. On the other hand, not a single reference is made of Allah being the moon-god nor is a single moon-god story reference made in respect to Allah. In fact, the Quranexplicitly rejects moon-worship in more than a half-dozen verses. Therefore, even if we accept (for argument’s sake only) the tenuous claim that there existed two Allah’s (a ludicrous argument to begin with), the Quranic Allah is linked to the Allah of the Biblical figures andnot the moon.
Based on this absurd two-Allah theory, Yoel Natan argues:
When Christians used the title Allah, they had “The God” of the Bible in mind. By contrast, Abdullah was also the name of Muhammad’s pagan father. He however was named after Allah the Makkan moon-god…
As we have seen, the evidence does not bear out Natan’s claim. Clearly, the Quran had “The God” (Allah) of the Bible in mind, evidenced by the explicit statement to the Christians stating that “our God (Allah) and your God (Allah) are one and the same” (Quran, 29:46), as well as the multitude of verses that affirm the Abrahamic tradition by linking Allah to the Biblical prophets. On the other hand, the Quran rejects the moon-god in multiple verses.
As for Muhammad’s father Abdullah, Muhammad renounced him for his idolatry just as Abraham renounced his father; to this effect, Muhammad said to another man whose father was also an “unrepentant” idolater: “my father and your father are in Hell” (Sahih al-Muslim, Book 1, #398). Muhammad renounced his father not because his father believed in Allah, but because he associated other gods and idols alongside Him.
If Muhammad really believed in the moon-god, then why are the Biblical prophets mentioned in the Quran promised eternal salvation in Paradise whereas his idol- and (supposedly) moon-worshiping father Abdullah is condemned to damnation in Hell? (To make matters worse for Yoel Natan, there is no proof that Muhammad’s father worshiped the moon at all, although it is irrelevant since Muhammad renounced him altogether.)
In any case, the idea that there existed two different Allah’s–a Judeo-Christian Allah and a pagan Allah–is absurd. Rather, the pre-Islamic pagans of Arabia were henotheistic, not purely polytheistic, in belief. As mentioned before, this means that they believed in one supreme God who created the world, but also in lesser gods who carried out day-to-day affairs. This supreme God they believed in was Allah, who was also the same god as that of the Jews and Christians. Unlike the Jews and the Christians, however, Allah was of nominal importance to the pre-Islamic pagans of Arabia; He was believed to be a remote god who had faded from relevance after He created the world and set it into motion.
It is easy to imagine how it came to be that the pagans of Arabia believed in the God of the Jews and Christians, whom Arabic-speaking adherents referred to as Allah. As Judaism and Christianity spread into Arabia–and Jewish and Christian communities became a part of the Arabian milieu–the pagans of Arabia were introduced to the name, concept, and deity of Allah. Just as the foreign god Hubal had been accommodated by the pagans, so too was the God of Israel absorbed into their pantheon.
In a similar way that the foreign god Hubal became supremely important to the pre-Islamic Arabs so too did Allah reach “high god” status; the Judeo-Christian emphasis on Allah as the creator of everything was accepted, although Allah retired from the world and delegated his duties to lesser gods. It would be Muhammad who renounced these lesser gods and called to the singular worship of Allah. Islam came as an absolute form of monotheism, rejecting the trinitarianism of the Christians and the henotheism of the Arabs, and affirming the absolute oneness of God.
When I say that Allah is the God of Abraham here, that is from the Muslim perspective, just like the Jews believe they have the same God as the Christians. The God of Abraham and the prophets.
I do not believe all three faiths worship the same God because two of them don’t have the Son of God, Jesus Christ in the Godhead. One has the wrong opinion of Jesus and the other rejects Him outright.
After this lengthy analysis, it becomes quite clear that the theory that “Allah is the moon-god” comes from nothing more than the fact that the crescent moon is often used as a symbol to represent Islam. This argument is paper thin for numerous reasons:
1) The star of David is used to denote Judaism; well then, the Jews must worship the stars therefore Yahweh must be the star-god! The cross is used to denote Christianity but do Christians worship the cross? Certainly, this is silly “logic.”
We can similarly disregard the “Muslims use the lunar calender” argument. Jews also use the lunar calender so does this mean that they too worship the moon? Christians use a solar calendar so does this mean they worship the sun god?
2) The crescent moon as a symbol for Islam is a relatively new phenomenon. Muhammad certainly never used it. In fact, it seems that he forbade all forms of religious iconography, as he feared it would lead to idolatry. Neither did the Muslims use the symbol for hundreds of years. It was only in the nineteenth century that the Ottoman Empire used the crescent symbol on their flag. The Ottomans were of Turkic origin, and the crescent symbol was used by the pre-Islamic Turkic tribes. The Ottoman Turks were converts to Islam, and they retained the pre-Islamic symbol from their pagan faith.
The Ottoman Empire expanded to involve much of the Islamic world, and soon “Muslim” became synonymous with “Turk” to the Europeans. Therefore, the crescent became associated not just with the Ottoman Empire, but Islam in general. Even so, it was only until the twentieth century that the crescent really became the symbol of Islam in the West and in some, but certainly not all Muslim countries. It is a historical irony that the adoption of the pagan symbol was a result of the early Islamic reticence towards adopting an icon. With no icon representing the faith, the crescent moon became the stand-in symbol for Islam.
Although it is true that the crescent symbol is pagan in origin, it cannot be used as a proof that Muhammad or the early Muslims worshiped the moon, since the crescent is of recent origin. During Muhammad’s time and hundreds of years thereafter, the Muslims did not use the crescent symbol.
It is hotly debated whether or not the Ottomans adopted the crescent symbol from the Byzantine Empire. Recent scholarship has moved away from this belief, but it is interesting to note that even when it was a widely held belief, nobody in their right mind would think that it would be proof that the Christians of the Byzantine Empire worshiped the moon! But somehow when it comes to Muslims there are always foregone conclusions.
3) As mentioned above, Muhammad forbade the use of religious icons. Furthermore, even though the crescent is used by the religious laity, it is rejected by the traditional and orthodox clergy of Islam. For example, the ultra-orthodox Islamic website Islam-qa.com says:
There is no basis in sharee’ah for taking the crescent or star as a symbol of the Muslims. This was not known at the time of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), or at the time of the Khulafa’ al-Raashidoon (the first four leaders of Islam after the death of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), or during the time of the Umawis (Umayyad dynasty)…there is no evidence that this symbol is prescribed by Islam, it is better not to use it. Neither the crescent nor the star are symbols of the Muslims, even though some Muslims may use them as symbols.
Elsewhere, the site says that the symbol might be haram (strictly forbidden) and even bidah (literally: a blame-worthy innovation; what it really refers to is a deviation from or corruption of the faith). Since our opponents usually take the most conservative expressions of Islam as the only legitimate and representative forms of the religion, surely this should be acceptable to them as proof that the crescent is not a part of Islam.
The attempt to vilify Islam has grown immensely since September 11, 2001. I believe it to be the result of the affect the media has had on slandering Islam and getting Americans to stereotype all Muslims as radicals wanting to kill everyone that doesn’t submit to their faith.
I grew up watching Muhammad Ali (Cassius Clay) and Kareem Abdul-Jabbar (Lew Alcindor), athletes that gained fame in their respective sports and no one thought of them as being scimitar-wielding killers. In fact, Ali dodged the draft and went to prison for refusing to go to Vietnam to kill people. There are peaceful Muslims out there. I know one personally so am turned off by the claims that they’re all out to kill us.
This idea that the peaceful Muslims are liberal, and if really devout they have to live by the sword, which is pushed by Jay Smith, is nonsense. No more liberal than a modern Jew or Christian that doesn’t take the Bible serious in regards to stoning people or killing witches. Times are different. The culture and political climate had a lot to do with what was going on back then. If you make war with any people, they’re going to defend themselves and become warlike. The United States is an oppressive imperialist with military bases in over 150 countries. That’s a large foot stepping down on the neck of a huge part of the world.
Let Agenda 21 try to use imminent domain to unjustly take your home and see how warlike you become. Sometimes you need to walk in the other person’s shoes. Count your blessings if you weren’t born in a warzone like Gaza and have a nice warm bed to wake up in. We all take that for granted. Thank you Lord that I live in America even with all of it’s faults. This is very revealing. I know James Morris, the man challenging Lee Hamilton. He’s a former Conservative Republican who’s turned political activist because of George W. Bush and his nonsensical wars in the Middle East. Tom Murphy has news clips that few people have seen or they’ve been long forgotten about regarding 9/11. The video below is very revealing. I know James Morris, the man questioning Lee Hamilton a few minutes in. He’s a former Conservative Republican turned political activist due to being self-disenfranchised (haven’t we all?) by non-support for the Bush administration’s contrived Middle Eastern wars of the past decade. Obama is continuing where Bush left off but that’s another story regarding the dialectic that I won’t go into here.
My daughter went to an Islamic co-worker’s wedding which was a 5 hour drive and she spent the night with the family, returning head intact. Another friend who’s husband was an Army drill instructor in the Iraq War stayed with Muslim families while he was serving, and returned home praising how gracious they were to her, knowing full well that her husband was in the military teaching men how to go to war with Iraqis.
You’d be better off finding a Muslim or anyone of another faith and get to know them to understand what they believe rather than letting your world view be created by Fox News.
If we’re trying to reach folks with the hope that they will accept Jesus Christ as their Lord and Savior, why spin yarns about their faith? There are enough truthful problems with Islam that we don’t need to fabricate things. I hope to prove that in future articles. It’s my desire that any Muslim reading this, or anyone for that matter, will understand that I follow the teachings of Jesus Christ when He said to love your neighbors and enemies. I would like to see as many fellow human beings in the Kingdom of God as possible. I believe that’s what the Lord desires for His creation as well, otherwise why send a Redeemer? Why wouldn’t we want what He wants if we are made in His image with Him living in us as a new creation?
Note: It seems that Mr. Morey has quite a few persons debunking his fruit on the internet as well as exposure of his slanderous remarks towards others. He might warrant his own article after what I’m seeing.
Not good pastor. I’ll pray for you. There’s still time to turn it all around.
One more thing that is troubling to me. Logos, who is a respectable retailer of biblical software and titles has “The Islamic Invasion” for sale as part of this set of volumes. That doesn’t look good on their part at all.