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We hope that you can give us some details about “jihad for the sake of Allaah” by explaining the following points:
1. What is meant by jihad in Arabic and in Islamic terminology
2. What is meant by martyrdom (shahaadah) in Arabic and in Islamic terminology
3. Degrees and types of martyrdom
4. The life of the martyrs with their Lord
5. The effect of the ruler’s permission in announcing jihad.

Praise be to Allaah.
Jihad in Arabic means striving and doing one’s utmost in word and deed.
In Islamic terminology it refers to the Muslims striving to fight the kuffaar so that the word of Allaah will be supreme.
See: al-Nihaayah fi Ghareeb al-Hadeeth by Ibn al-Atheer (1/319); al-Misbaah al-Muneer (1/112); Ahammiyyat al-Jihaad by Dr. ‘Ali ibn Nufay’ al-‘Alyaani.

Shahaadah in Arabic has several meanings: definitive news, being present, seeing something, openness, and dying for the sake of Allaah.
In Islamic terminology it refers to those Muslims who die fighting the kuffaar and because of the fighting. With regard to the Hereafter, it may refer to other things as well, as we shall see below.
See: al-Mawsoo’ah al-Fiqhiyyah (26/214, 272).

Martyrs are of different types.
Al-Nawawi (may Allaah have mercy on him) said:
It should be noted that martyrs are of three types:

1 – The one who is killed in a war against the kuffaar by any means of fighting. He comes under the heading of martyrs who are rewarded in the Hereafter and he comes under the rulings on martyrs in this world, i.e. he should not be washed and the funeral prayer should not be offered for him.

2 – The one who is given the reward of the martyr but does not come under the rulings on martyrs in this world. This refers to those who die of stomach diseases, the plague, being crushed under a falling wall, those who are killed defending their wealth and others who are mentioned in the saheeh ahaadeeth as being described as martyrs. Such a person should be washed and the funeral prayer should be offered for him, but in the Hereafter he will have the reward of the martyrs, but it will not necessarily be the same as the reward for those in the first category.

3 – Those who steal from the war booty etc, who it says in the reports cannot be regarded as martyrs if they are killed in a war against the kuffaar. Such a person comes under the ruling of martyrs in this world, so he should not be washed and the funeral prayer should not be offered for him, but he will not have the full reward in the Hereafter. End quote.
Sharh al-Nawawi ‘ala Muslim (2/164).

Degrees of martyrs:
The status of the martyr is high indeed, coming after the Prophets and Siddeeqs in status.
Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah(may Allaah have mercy on him) said:
Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
“then they will be in the company of those on whom Allaah has bestowed His Grace, of the Prophets, the Siddeeqoon (those followers of the Prophets who were first and foremost to believe in them, like Abu Bakr As‑Siddeeq رضى الله عنه ), the martyrs, and the righteous”
[al-Nisa’ 4:69]
These are the four degrees of Allaah’s slaves: the best of them are the Prophets, then the Siddeeqs, then the martyrs, then the righteous. End quote.
Majmoo’ al-Fataawa (2/223).
Allaah has made Paradise of varying levels or degrees, of which the Mujaahideen (those who strive in jihad) will have one hundred degrees, as it was narrated in al-Saheeh from the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), therefore the martyrs are not all of the same status, rather they vary in status.
Ibn Hajar (may Allaah have mercy on him) said, after listing the martyrs other than those who are killed in battle:
We have compiled from excellent sources more than twenty types…
Ibn al-Teen said: All of these ways of dying are painful. Allaah has favoured the ummah of Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) by making it a means of purifying them from sin, increasing their reward and causing them to attain thereby the status of the martyrs.
I (Ibn Hajar) say: It seems that those mentioned are not all of the same status. This is indicated by the report narrated by Ahmad and Ibn Hibbaan in his Saheeh from Jaabir, and by al-Daarimi, Ahmad and al-Tahhaawi from ‘Abd-Allaah ibn Hubshi, and by Ibn Maajah from ‘Amr ibn ‘Anbasah: that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) was asked: What type of jihad is best? He said: “The one whose horse is killed and whose blood is shed.” End quote.
Fath al-Baari (6/43, 44).
In the saheeh Sunnah there are reports from the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) which indicate this difference in status among the martyrs.
For example:
It was narrated from Nu’aym ibn Hammaar that a man asked the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him): Which of the martyrs is best? He said: “Those who, when they took up their position in the ranks, did not turn their faces away until they were killed. They will be in the dwellings on high in Paradise, and their Lord smiles upon them, and when your Lord smiles upon a slave in this world, he will not be brought to account.”
Narrated by Ahmad (21970); classed as saheeh by Shaykh al-Albaani in al-Silsilah al-Saheehah (2558).

It was narrated that ‘Utbah ibn ‘Abdin al-Sulami said: The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “The slain are of three types: (the first is) a believing man who fought with his life and his wealth for the sake of Allaah, and when he met the enemy he fought them until he was killed. That is the proud martyr who resides in the tent of Allaah beneath His Throne; the Prophets are no better than him except by virtue of their being Prophets. (The second is) a believing man who committed some sins, but he fought with his life and his wealth for the sake of Allaah, and when he met the enemy he fought until he was killed. His sins are erased, for the sword erases sins, and he will be admitted through whichever of the gates of Paradise he wishes, for it has eight gates, and Hell has seven gates, and some of them are better than others. (The third is) a hypocrite who strove with his life and his wealth, and when he met the enemy he fought for the sake of Allaah and was killed. He will be in Hell, for the sword does not erase hypocrisy.”
Narrated by Ahmad (17204). Its isnaad was classed as jayyid by al-Mundhiri in al-Targheeb wa’l-Tarheeb (2/208), and as hasan by al-Albaan in Saheeh al-Targheeb (1370).

It was narrated from ‘Abd-Allaah ibn Hubshi al-Khath’ami that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) was asked: What type of jihad is best? He said: “The one who strives against the mushrikeen with his wealth and his life.” It was said: What kind of death is noblest? He said: “The one whose blood is shed and his horse is killed.” Narrated by Abu Dawood (1449) and al-Nasaa’i (2526); classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in Saheeh al-Targheeb (1318).

It was narrated from Jaabir (may Allaah be pleased with him) that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “The leader of the martyrs is Hamzah ibn ‘Abd al-Muttalib and a man who stood up before a tyrant and enjoined good and forbade evil, and he killed him.” Narrated by al-Haakim and classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in al-Silsilah al-Saheehah (374).

With regard to the life of the martyrs with their Lord, it is the life of al-Barzakh, where their Lord honours them with the delights of Paradise, where their position varies according to their deeds and intentions in this world.
Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
“Think not of those as dead who are killed in the way of Allaah. Nay, they are alive, with their Lord, and they have provision.
170. They rejoice in what Allaah has bestowed upon them of His Bounty and rejoice for the sake of those who have not yet joined them, but are left behind (not yet martyred) that on them no fear shall come, nor shall they grieve.
171. They rejoice in a grace and a bounty from Allaah, and that Allaah will not waste the reward of the believers”
[Aal ‘Imraan 3:169-171]
“And say not of those who are killed in the way of Allaah, ‘They are dead.’ Nay, they are living, but you perceive (it) not”
[al-Baqarah 2:154]
Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen said:
What is meant is that they are alive with their Lord, as it says in the verse from Aal ‘Imraan, but it is the life of al-barzakh and we do not know how it is. They have no need for food, drink or air, hence Allaah says “but you perceive (it) not” i.e., you do not perceive that they are living, because it is the life of al-barzakh in the unseen. If Allaah had not told us about it we would have no knowledge of it.
Another thing we learn from the verse is that the martyrs are alive, but it is the life of al-barzakh which is nothing like life in this world, rather it is better and greater, but we do not know how it is. End quote.

Tafseer Soorat al-Baqarah (2/176, 177).
Ibn Rajab al-Hanbali (may Allaah have mercy on him) said, under the heading: Chapter on the location of the souls of the dead in al-Barzakh:
As for the martyrs, most of the scholars are of the view that they are in Paradise. There are many ahaadeeth which speak of that.
In Saheeh Muslim (1887) it is narrated that Masrooq said: We asked ‘Abd-Allaah ibn Mas’ood about this verse: “Think not of those as dead who are killed in the way of Allaah . Nay, they are alive, with their Lord, and they have provision” [Aal ‘Imraan 3:169]. He said: We also asked about that, and he (the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him)) said: “Their souls are in the crops of green birds, which have lamps hanging from the Throne, and they roam freely wherever they want in Paradise, then they return to those lamps…”

Imam Ahmad, Abu Dawood and al-Haakim narrated, in a report that was classed as hasan by al-Albaani in Saheeh al-Targheeb (1379), from Sa’eed ibn Jubayr, that Ibn ‘Abbaas said: The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “When your brethren were slain at Uhud, your Lord put their souls in the crops of green birds that go to the rivers of Paradise and eat of its fruits, then they go back to lamps of gold that are hanging in the shade of the Throne. When they find their food and drink and abode they said: Who will convey to our brethren that we are alive in Paradise and receiving provision, so that they will not give up fighting or turn away from jihad? And Allaah said: I shall tell them about you. Then Allaah, may He be exalted, revealed the verse: ‘Think not of those as dead who are killed in the way of Allaah . Nay, they are alive, with their Lord, and they have provision’ [Aal ‘Imraan 3:169].”
Al-Tirmidhi and al-Haakim narrated, in a report that was classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in Saheeh al-Targheeb (13762) from Ibn ‘Abbaas that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “I saw Ja’far ibn Abi Taalib as an angel flying in Paradise with the angels, with two wings.” End quote.
Ahwaal al-Quboor (p. 92-104).

With regard to asking the ruler for permission for jihad, this has been discussed in the answer to question no. 69746. If the kuffaar attack the Muslims, then jihad becomes an individual obligation (fard ‘ayn) in which case the permission of the ruler is no longer a condition.
As for jihad with the aim of conquest and spreading Islam, the permission of the ruler is essential.
And Allaah knows best.


بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

In Biblical times people were married at a very young age. Girls were usually betrothed before they reached puberty – majority of the time the marriage would have consummated when the girl reached puberty, and that was usually between the ages of 8, 9 or older,(Note: when a girl reached puberty prior to the 20th century, she was considered to be an adult in most cultures/societies). In this article I will mostly quote Scholarly sources to prove that marriage in ancient Israelite times took place at a very young age, sometimes the girls who were married off were pre-pubescent. There was no law against a pre-pubescent girl being married off. Actually as you will read further, you will come to realise that the Mishnah gave approval for a Man to have intercourse to a betrothed girl, any-time after the age of three years old.

Related Articles:
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Bible sanctions pre-pubescent marriages (child marriage)
Age of Consent in European & American History

Isaac’s wife was Rebecca, mother of Jacob, and Esua. According to calculations made by Rabbi Solomon Itzhaki (A.K.A. Rashi a well-known respected Jewish Scholar), Rebecca was three years old when she married Isaac.

1. Rashi’s commentary on Genesis 25:20 says:
forty years old: For when Abraham came from Mount Moriah, he was informed that Rebecca had been born. Isaac was then thirty-seven years old, for at that time Sarah died, and from the time that Isaac was born until the “Binding” [of Isaac], when Sarah died, were thirty-seven years, for she was ninety years old when Isaac was born, and one hundred and twenty-seven when she died, as it is stated (above 23:1): “The life of Sarah was [a hundred and twenty-seven years.”] This makes Isaac thirty-seven years old, and at that time, Rebecca was born. He waited for her until she would be fit for marital relations-three years-and then married her.— [From Gen. Rabbah 57:1
[Retrieved it from this website: http://www.chabad.org/library/bible_cdo/aid/8220/showrashi/true%5D

2. Also Johann Buxtorf cites Rashi that Rebecca was three years old when she married Isaac.

“Rabbi Solomon in his comment on Genesis, says that Rebecca, when she was married to Isaac, was but three Years of Age. His words run thus, ‘When Abraham was come from Mount Moria, he received the joyful News of Rebecca. Isaac was at that Time Thirty seven years old; and then did Sarah die. The time, from birth of Isaac to the death of Sarah, was Thirty seven Years, And Sarah was Ninety Years old when Isaac was born; and One Hundred and Twenty Seven Years old when she died: As it is said in Gen 23:1 . Sarah was one hundred and twenty-seven years old. Behold, the Age of Isaac was Thirty Seven Years, at the Time of the Birth of Rebecca. And when he had waited for her three Years, till she was fit for marriage, he took her to wife.”
According to this Account, Rebecca was a very notable Girl at three years of age. But that a girl of three Years old is fit for marriage, is maintained very plainly in the Jewish writings; particularly, in Emek Hamelech, in the following passage, ‘our blessed sags, of blessed memory, say, that a female is not fit for marriage, ‘till she is arrived at the Age of three years and one day.’ The Talmud supports these Sages here, in the part entitled Avoda Sara. And the Sanhedrin says, A daughter, who is of the age of three years and one day, is, by being bedded with a Man, lawfully married.” [1]

Before going any further, one of the objections raised by some Jewish and most Christian Apologist is that they say, “how can a three year old fetch water out of a well?” They further say, “a girl of that age could not do that she must be a lot older than three.” These statements do not disapprove anything. The way they make it seem, as if it is impossible for a girl to pull 1, 2 letters of water. Any three old girl could pull 1, 2 letters of water out of a well.

3. In addition to what we have already brought forth on Isaac’s marriage to Rebecca, The Zohar, which is Translated/Commentary by Daniel Chanan Matt also makes mention that Isaac married Rebecca when she was three years old.

51. “She was three years old when he embraced her the youngest legal age a female can be-married. See M Niddah 5:4; Seder Olam Rabbah 1; Soferim, add. 1:4 Rashi on Genesis 25:20 Tosafot, Yevamot 61b, s.v. ve-khen; sekhe; Tov, Genesis 24:14.
Rebekah’s three years correspond to the three colors of the rainbow.
52. He engendered at sixty, generating fittingly… see Genesis 25:26. When Isaac fathered Jacob he was sixty years old, symbolizing the full sextet of sefirot from hesed through Yesod, thereby ensuring that Jacob would be complete. [2]

As you have read it is quite clear, a fact that Rebecca married Isaac when she was three years old. Furthermore, we have more evidence from Judaic Holy Book ‘Mishnah’, it gives more weight to the above references that girls as young as three years old were allowed to be betrothed by intercourse at the age of three. Although in Ancient Hebrew marriages girls were recommend to be married at the age of 12, there are laws in the Mishnah that give approval that once betrothed you can have sexual intercourse any-time after the age of three years old.

4. Jacob Neusner is an American academic scholar of Judaism. In the Book: ‘The Comparative Hermeneutics of Rabbinic Judaism: Seder Tohorot. Tohorot through Uqsin.’ The Jewish oral Torah i.e. Mishnah states,

M. 5:4 A girl three years and one day old is betrothed by intercourse. And if a Levir has had intercourse with her, he has acquired her. And they are laible on her account because of the law [Prohibiting intercourse with] a married woman. And she imparts uncleanness to him who has intercourse with her [when she is menstruating] to convey uncleanness to the lower as to the upper layer. [If] she was married to a priest, she eats heave offering. [If] one of those who are unfit [for marriage] has intercourse with her, he has rendered her unfit to marry into priesthood. [If] one of all those who are forbidden in the Torah to have intercourse with her, he is put to death on her account, but she is free of responsibility. [3]

5. A Commentary on the above verse, in the Book: ‘A history of the Mishnaic Law of Purities. 15. Niddah. by Jacob Neusner, it says:

M. 5:4-5 bring us to the next stage in the matter of the legal status of children, female and male. The girl three years and one day old is deemed capable of sexual relations, which accounts for A, B, and C. D. Presumably should not apply to M. 5:3-a; if the girl is unclean as a menstruant but is incapable of sexual relations, one who has (or attempts) relations with her is not made unclean as is one who has had sexual relations with a menstruant. E simply goes over familiar ground; since the girl can be acquired as a wife, she also may eat heave-offering. F. Follows, and G. Repeats what is already obvious. But H limits the matter. The girl is not held responsible in a matter of forbidden sexual relations. I is a minor gloss. If the girl is less than three years and one day old, we do not regard the sexual relationship as of legal consequence. The theory is that the tokens of Virginity are restored before that time but not afterword. [4]

6. The Anglican Priest Herbert Danby in the Book: ‘The Mishnah: Translated from the Hebrew with Introduction and Brief Explanatory notes.’ It says that a girl of three years old and one day could be betrothed by the brother’s husband and he can have intercourse with her.

“A girl three years old and one day may be betrothed by intercourse; her deceased childless husband’s brother can acquire her by intercourse; and by connexion with her a man can be culpable by virtue of the Law of a married woman; and him that has connexion with her [while she is a menstruant] she renders unclean so that he conveys uncleanness to what is beneath him in like degree as [he that has a flux conveys uncleanness] to what lies above him’ if she married to a priest she may eat of Heave-offering; if one that is ineligible has connexion with her he renders her ineligible for marriage with a priest; if any of the forbidden degrees prescribed in the Law had connexion with her they are put to death on her account, but she is not culpable. If she is younger than this, it is as one that puts a finger in the eye.” [5]

7. Edward Hendrie also echoes the same statements made previously

“Orthodox Judaism has a very permissive attitude towards sexual deviance. For example:Sanhedrin 55b: It is permitted to have sexual intercourse with a girl three years and one day old. See also Yebamoth 57b, 60b; Abodah Zarah 37a.
Kethoboth 11b: When a grown-up man has intercourse with a little girl it is nothing, for when the girl is less than three years old it is as if one puts the finger into the eye, tears come to the eye again and again, so does virginity come back to the little girl under three years.” [6]

8. Professor Joshua A. Fogel in his book: ‘Reading Tractate Avodah Zarah of the Babylonian Talmud.’ He says the: ‘tumah of a zav’ is when it happens that is when a boy is ready to cohabit. The Hebrew word ‘zav’ means, In Torah terminology, the Hebrew word zav (lit. “flow”) is a state of ritual impurity arising from abnormal seminal discharge from the male sexual organ” (see Wikipedia.com). Here is what is said,

“The orevious daf ended with R. Yehudah ha-Nasi accepting the view of R. Chiyya that an idolater conveys the tumah of a zav from the nine years and one day (not just one day). When asked about this age, he replies that this is the age at which he is able to cohabit and thus convey the tumah of a zav. If nine seems on the young side, it’s three for girls. In other tractates of the Talmud, these ages, especially for a girl, become extremely relevant, such as in determining what constitutes rape or marriage by cohabitation; I mentioned in here only because how shockingly young it seems to my (and probably most) 21st century eyes. It is Ravina who argues for age of three for girls, rather than from birth which was put forth by Rav Nachman bar Yitzchack on the previous daf. Ravina contribution is to match age cohabitation with age of zav (or niddah) tumah capacity.” [7]

9. Robin Grille

“Among the ancient Hebrews, betrothal by sexual intercourse was permitted with girls aged three years and day, and marriages for girls was actually recommended at 12 years of age. The Biblical woman and child were property, not persons. For the right to marry a pre-pubescent girl, one simply had to pay an agreed sum to her father. In India, child marriage was condemned by law until 1929, although around 80 per cent of the population was still practicing it.” [8]

10. Mary De Young

“The possession of Children by their parents was also given religious sanction in the teachings of both the Talmud and the Bible. Rush (1880) states that the Talmud teaches that a girl of ‘three years and one day’ could be betrothed through an act of sexual intercourse.” [9]

11. Professor Geza Vermes who is well-known and a respected scholar comments that Pre-pubescent girls were allowed to be married.

“…the Greek parthenos could also mean that the girl was young and/or unmarried. In fact, in the Septuagint translation of the Old Testament parthenos was used to render three distinct Hebrew words, ‘Virgin’, ‘girl’ and ‘young woman’. Already Rabbis in the Tannaitic era (first to second century ad) subscribed to further nuances, and there is no reason to think that all these were invented by them. Even the word betulah, which normally means virgo intact, when used by them could carry the laternal sense of bodily immaturity with the consequential inability to conceive. In Rabbinic terminology this type of virginity in a woman ceased with the physical onset of puberty. The Mishnah, the oldest of the rabbinic codes, defines a virgin as a female who ‘has never seen blood even though she is married’ (mNiddah 1:4). The Tosefta, another early Jewish code of law, claims in the name of Rabbi Eliezer ben Hyrcanus (late first century ad) that such a woman would continue to count as a virgin even after she had conceived and borne children without prior menstruation (tNiddah 1:6)! To understand these statements, we must remember that in the InterTestamental and early rabbinic age, pre-puberty marriage was generally permitted. In fact rabbis seriously debated whether bloodstains found after the wedding night in nuptial bed of a minor, i.e. a ‘virgin in respect of menstruation’, marked her first period or the consummation of the marriage.” [10]

12. Reverend Kathryn J. Riss also makes mention that in first century parents married off their daughters who were pre-pubescent to much older men. What is interesting is she does not mention once that Rabbis or anyone higher up in authority speaking against such marriages.

“The longest New Testament passage on marriage is found, not in Ephesians, but in 1 Corinthians chapter 7. In stark contrast to the legal positions and social expectations of the first century, here the rights and responsibilities of man and woman are upheld as equal. Although marriages were arranged by parents, who often espoused their pre-pubescent daughters to much OLDER MEN…” [11]

13. Theological Dictionary of the Old Testament, by G. Johannes Botterweck, Helmer Ringgren and Heinz-Josef Fabry it states,

“One might counter that the expression mohar habbetulot (Ex. 22:16[17]) refers rather to the pretium virginitatis. In this case, the mohar would be compensation to the girl for the loss of her virginity. This explanation, however, is unacceptable, since it proceeds on the assumption that the term betula means ‘virgin.’ This may doubtlessly be the case in many passages, but in joel 1:8, betula thus refers to a married woman who had been ‘possessed’ by her husband (ba’al); betula thus refers to a marriageable girl who was physically able to cope with a man, ‘taking her into his possession.’ Here the term betula says nothing about her virginity. Ex.22:16 (17) (kesep yisqol kemohar hab betulot) can thus be translated ‘he shall weigh out as much silver as is required for marriageable girls.’ In this context we should point out that ancient Hebrew custom did not associate marriageability with puberty. In contrast to the marriageable girl (betula), the…. Alma refers to a girl in puberty capable of conception. Girls could in fact already be given marriage long before actual physical maturity, perhaps even as young as five years old (cf. Lev. 27:5), and it did happen that marriages were already consummated with prepubescent girls. [12]

14. Zeʼev Wîlhelm Falq

“A more common practice was the marrying off of minor daughters by their fathers. For instance King Agrippa(s) (41-44 C.E.), left three daughters: ‘of these, one, Berenice, who was sixteen years old, was married to Herod, her father’s BROTHER, and two were unmarried, namely Mariamne and Drusilla, aged respectively ten and six years. They had been promised by their fathers in marriage, Marriamne to Julius Archelaus, son of Helkias, and Drusilla to Epiphanes, the son of Antiochus, King of Commagene’ (Josephus, XIX Antiquites, 9. 1. 354). In such cases, marriage and consummation would be postponed until the BRIDE REACHED PUBERTY: it was held proper to marry off a minor daughter with her consent and not against her will. However, these rules were not only applicable to a minor daughter given in marriage by her father, since his right to do so is expressly mentioned in the Torah (Exodus XXI 7; Deuteronomy XXII 16).” [13]

15. T. J. Wray

“In the Hebrew Bible and New Testament, marriage is considered the natural state for men and women, and although there are certainly instances where Jewish men (and rarely, Jewish women) are not married, this is the exception rather than norm. Most women marry quite young, usually soon after the onset of menstruation, which of course, heralds fertility. Men typically marry later (in their twenties, or even thirties) and this most men are older than their wives.” [14]

16. Harry L. Tabony

“BC. The good book of Genesis says that after a few generations Abraham’s progeny had grown to sizeable numbers. That is understandable, considering the practice of multiple wives and marriage just after puberty for girls. Abraham’s many sons could father thousands of children, considering ample girls available from the natives of Canaan.” [15]

17. Encyclopedia of the Jewish Diaspora: Origins, Experiences, and Culture, Professor Mark Avrum Ehrlich writes:

“Girls were often married to their uncles on their father’s side, or to their cousins, in order to secure the family’s capital and in the hope that their kin would take good care of them. Minor girls were betrothed by their fathers (by Kidushin, a legally binding commitment) even before they came of age, and usually began living with their husbands-occasionally much older than them- at the age of puberty.” [16]

18. Respected Rabbi Isaac Klein in his book: ‘A Guide to Jewish Religious Practice’, says that Child marriages were common and that ‘age was not the factor’ when someone had to get married. So in other words no matter what the age of the girl, once the parents gave the go ahead, the girl had to choose the husband, she had no choice in the matter.

“Child marriages were very common in ancient days. Since marriages were arranged by parents and the consent of parties was not necessary, AGE WAS NOT THE FACTOR in coming to an agreement. The physical factor related only to the consummation of the marriage. Hence, there was usually a waiting period between the agreement and the consummation. It is logical to assume that when a boy and a girl reached the age of puberty, and the sex urge demanded satisfaction, ancient society deemed marriage to be the answer. In time, other elements became factor in marriage: climate, social conditions, economic conditions, and even political conditions.” [17]

19. Old Testament Scholar Gordon Wenham

“In reality social custom and pressures greatly curtailed the sexual freedom of men in the Bible times. First, marriages were customarily arranged by parents, as soon as children passed puberty. This meant that there were few unattached girls: most females of marriageable age were either married or betrothed….” [18]

20. David M. Carr Professor of Old Testament

“…ancient Israelite women did have to deal with a constant stream of pregnancies, from when they reached puberty in their teens until they died in their twenties or thirties.” [19]

21. Dr. Richard H. Lowery

“A typical adult Israelite male had a life expectancy of forty years. Infant mortality rates were high, perhaps as high as 50 percent. So women typically had two pregnancies for every one child who reached age five. Since the economic survival of the household depended on the production of able-bodied children, women married immediately after puberty and were pregnant or nursing for a relatively large portion of their life.” [20]

22. Saba Soomekh

“In the early twentieth-century, Iranian Jewish women married at a very young age, either when they reached puberty or by their fifteenth year or sixteenth birthday. Similarly, Jewish women living in Ottoman Libya were married once a girl reached puberty and under Italian rule, ‘women married when they reached their fifteenth or sixteenth birthday, but at times, the brides were much younger.” [21]

23. Steven M. Lowenstein Professor of Jewish History

“The next great life cycle event in Jewish life after the bar Mirzvah is marriage. In most traditional societies (Jewish and Non-Jewish), marriages were arranged between families, with only the most perfunctory consultation with the couple to-be, and often involved complex financial arrangements such as dowries and trousseaus. In the middle ages the age at marriage seems to have been around puberty throughout the Jewish world….” [22]

24. Ruth Lamdan

“The numerous references to child marriage in the 16th- century Responsa literature and other sources, shows that child marriage was so common, it was virtually the norm. In this context, it is important to remember that in halakha, the term ‘minor’ refers to a girl under twelve years and a day. A girl aged twelve and a half was already considered an adult in all respects.” [23]

25. Philip J. King

“A few anecdotal incidents, and a wealth of later documentation, suggests that women married young, while still in their teens, sometimes early teens, in fact; men waited until well into their twenties or even early thirties before marrying.” [24]

26. Ken Blady

“Persian Jews married off their children very early: boys at ten or twelve, and girls at the very tender age of six or seven. Some girls were mothers by age twelve or thirteen. Polygamy was practiced only by men who could afford more than one wife. It was common for a prepubescent girl to marry a man who was old enough to be her grandfather.” [25]

27. Professor Harvey E. Goldberg

“Habbani Jewish ‘women’ were almost always prepubescent at their first marriage. Their first husbands were often in their late teens. Normally, there was neither bride price nor dowry, but a groom was expected to provide wedding jewelry and seven goats for the wedding festivities. The jewelry became a woman’s property. Occasionally, the bridegroom was far older than the bride.” [26]

28. Jonathan B. Krasner says that betrothal took place at the age of eight or nine, now keep in mind earlier we provided evidences that once a girl was betrothed the husband can engage with her sexually:

“Betrothal, or engagement, generally occurred at the age eight or nine. Jewish girls typically married at age eleven or twelve and boys at about thirteen or fourteen. (In Germany and France, Christian girls typically married at twelve or thirteen, and boys were usually in their late teens or twenties.)… (Marriage in Ashkenazic).” [27]

I believe who ever reads this article will agree that Judaism in past practised and allowed pre-pubescent marriages. Also, Isaac’s marriage to Rebecca, all the evidence shown is in agreement that Isaac married Rebecca when she was three years old. Whatever some Christian/Jews (modern) may say about Rebecca being older because she fetched water out of a well, they have no proof that a girl of three cannot fetch 1 – 2 litters of water out of a well. I also gave many references that the Mishnah gave approval for girls to be betrothed by intercourse at the age of three.


[1] Johann Buxtorf, Johann Andreas Eisenmenger, John Peter Stehelin
Rabinical literature: or, The traditions of the Jews, contained in their Talmud and other mystical writings. Likewise the opinions of that people concerning Messiah, and the time and manner of his appearing; with an appendix comprizing Buxtorf’s account of the religious customs and ceremonies of that nation; also, A preliminary enquiry into the origin, progress, authority, and usefulness of these traditions; wherein the sense of the strange allegories in the Talmud and Jewish authors is explained. [ Publisher: London J. Robinson, 1748] Volume 1 page 33 – 34
[2] The Zohar: Pritzker Edition. Volume two, (2003) page 264 [The Zohar 1:136b] Translation and Commentary by Daniel Chanan Matt
[3] The Comparative Hermeneutics of Rabbinic Judaism: Seder Tohorot. Tohorot through Uqsin By Jacob Neusner Volume 6 [Copyright 2000] page 152
[4] A history of the Mishnaic Law of Purities. 15. Niddah . Commentary edited by Jacob Neusner page 83
[5] The Mishnah: Translated from the Hebrew with Introduction and Brief Explanatory notes Herbert Danby page 750
[6] Solving the Mystery of Babylon the Great By Edward Hendrie
[7] Reading Tractate Avodah Zarah of the Babylonian Talmud By Professor Joshua A. Fogel page 84
[8]Parenting for a Peaceful World By Robin Grille
[9]Mary De Young The sexual victimization of children page 103
[10] The Changing Faces of Jesus By Geza Vermes
[11] Journey’s End: Removing Biblical Barriers Between Women and Their Destiny By Reverend Kathryn J. Riss, THM page 164
[12] Theological Dictionary of the Old Testament, Volume 8 edited by G. Johannes Botterweck, Helmer Ringgren, Heinz-Josef Fabry [1997] page 144 – 145
[13] Introduction to Jewish law of the second Commonwealth. 2 (1978) By Zeʼev Wîlhelm Falq part 2 page 278
[14] What the Bible Really Tells Us: The Essential Guide to Biblical Literacy By T. J. Wray page 146 chapter 7
[15] Christianity’s Source: It All Came from Ancient Egypt By Harry L. Tabony
[16] Encyclopedia of the Jewish Diaspora: Origins, Experiences, and Culture, Volume 1 By Mark Avrum Ehrlich page 258
[17] A Guide to Jewish Religious Practice By Isaac Klein page 396
[18] Story as Torah: Reading the Old Testament Ethically By Gordon Wenham page 84
[19] The Erotic Word: Sexuality, Spirituality, and the Bible By David M. Carr Professor of Old Testament Union Theological Seminary In New York page 43
[20]Sabbath and Jubilee (Understanding Biblical Themes) By Richard H. Lowery page 8
[21] Saba Soomekh Between Religion and Culture: Three Generations of Iranian Jewish Women from the Shahs to Los Angeles Page 65
[22] The Jewish Cultural Tapestry : International Jewish Folk Traditions By Steven M. Lowenstein, Professor of Jewish History, University of Judaism page 108
[23] A Separate People: Jewish Women in Palestine, Syria, and Egypt in the sixteenth Century By Rûth Lamdān page 47
[24] Life in Biblical Israel By Philip J. King, Lawrence E. Stage page 37
[25] Jewish Communities in Exotic Places By Ken Blady Page 69
[26] Sephardi and Middle Eastern Jewries: History and Culture in the Modern Era edited by Harvey E. Goldberg page 267
[27] The History of the Jewish People: A Story of Tradition And Change By Jonathan B. Krasner, Jonathan D. Sarnapage volume 1 page




Simon Elliot, aka Al-Baghdadi, son of Jewish parents, Mossad agent.

According to Edward Snowden, Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, the boss of ISIL (aka ISIS),  is a Jewish actor named Simon Elliot.

French Report ISIL Leader Mossad Agent / Simon Elliot, alias Al-Baghdadi, de père et mère juifs

Simon Elliot (aka Elliot Shimon aka Al-Baghdadi) has Jewish parents.

Simon Elliot, having been recruited by Mossad, was trained in espionage and psychological warfare.

The best known examples of Jews running ‘Moslem’ terror organisations are Osama bin Laden and Ayman al-Zawahiri.



John McCain and the leader of ISIS/IS who is Simon Elliot, aka Al-Baghdadi. John McCain’s Whoops Moment: Photographed Chilling With ISIS
Simon Elliot, the leader of ISIS (aka IS), has been photographed with Mossad asset John McCain.
ISIS (now called IS) was trained by the Americans and Israelis and is led by Israelis.

ISIS Leader Abu Bakr Al Baghdadi Trained by Israel.


Al-Baghdadi (Simon Elliot) with McCain. John McCain’s Whoops Moment: Photographed Chilling With ISIS.

Source: http://aanirfan.blogspot.com/2014/08/isis-run-by-simon-elliot-mossad-agent.html




Who is Abu Musab Al-Zarqawi? From Al-Zarqawi to Al-Bagdahdi: “The Islamic State” is a CIA-Mossad-MI6 “Intelligence Asset”

Breaking! ISIS Leader is a ‘Jewish Mossad Agent’

NEWS DIGEST: ISIS Leader Al-Baghdadi = Jewish Mossad Agent!
In French
Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, so-called ”Caliph,” the head of ISIL (Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant is, according to sources reputed to originate from Edward Snowden, an actor named Elliot Shimon, a Mossad trained operative.

ISIS leader a confirmed CIA puppet

French Report ISIL Leader Mossad Agent




ISIS is a Creation of the Israeli Mossad

ISIS Leader Abu Bakr Al Baghdadi Trained by Israeli Mossad, NSA Documents Reveal

Edward Snowden Reveals ISIS Leader Abu Bakr Al Baghdadi Trained By Israeli Mossad (Video)

ISIS Leader Abu Bakr Al Baghdadi Trained by Israeli Mossad, NSA Documents Reveal

Chinese hackers: Mossad has close ties with ISIS


Press TV has conducted an interview with Moufid Jaber, from the Center for Middle East Studies and Public Relations from Beirut, about a former Pentagon official revealing that US President Barack Obama ignored the threats of ISIL for at least one year despite being given detailed intelligence about their advancements.

What follows is an approximate transcription of the interview.

Press TV: I’d like you to first of all weigh in on this revelation coming from this former Pentagon official that the US President Barrack Obama in fact ignored the hints of the rising to power of the ISIL?

Jaber: You know it is my personal opinion that the CIA and the Obama administration was well aware of the strength of ISIL. Now what they did is that they are trying to portray it as being either an activity on part of the President or incompetence on part of the CIA.

So they are sacrificing their own reputation to hide what the actual truth is. The truth is that ISIL is not operating alone. On one hand it had the funding from major powers in the region especially from private funders and Saudi Arabia and the Emirates and Kuwait but most importantly very few people can doubt that ISIL was strengthened through intelligence channels especially the CIA and the MOSSAD.

Now the Americans are trying to portray it in a sense that they were not aware that ISIL was so strong but they are trying to hide the fact that the entire purpose of ISIL is to divide the region and most importantly it is a pretext to give the Kurds, a pretext for the Kurds to gain weapons from the West because had it not been for the threat of ISIL, the West would not have been able to give weapons to the Kurds that the  Kurds would use in a confrontation in the future with the central Iraqi government because it is very well known that one of the main purposes  of Israel in the region, one of the main strategies of Israel in the region is to strengthen the Kurds and to make it so that they have their own independent state because as we well know the Kurds have strong diplomatic relations with Israel and what they are seeking now, what Israel is seeking now is for Israel to have a base that is on the borders of Iraq and Iran and Syria and Turkey.

So the whole purpose of ISIL which was backed by the United States and by the MOSSAD is to gain strength in the region and to give a pretext most importantly to the Kurds because now the Kurds are gaining weapons from the US, from France, from Germany and the UK. Under any other scenario the Kurds would not have been able to gain weapons from the West.

So the whole purpose is for the US to have a pretext to arm the Kurds that the Kurds would use these weapons in a future confrontation with the central Iraqi government and this is a danger that we should all be aware of. We should not be naïve as to what ISIL is. It is an intelligence creation of American and Israeli intelligence. The purpose of which is to divide the region and to wreak havoc. 

Press TV: Mr. Jaber, in your opinion how does the United Sates explain their inconsistency with their approach to the ISIL terrorists? It was a support that the United Sates and its allies in the region gave to militants in Syria that ultimately led to the rise of the ISIL and now on the other hand when they infiltrated into Iraq and take large parts of Iraq they are attacking them and carrying out attacks to stop their advancement?

Jaber: They only started carrying out the attacks against ISIL once ISIL reached the borders of Kurdistan. When ISIL was taking over Anbar we did not see any action on part of the American government. When ISIL was killing, massacring Shiites in Iraq, we were not seeing any kind of action on part of the US.

The US allowed for the Islamic state to expand, they allowed it to gain ground in such a way that they would impose their authority on the Sunni regions in Iraq in order to fragment Iraq even further.

So the Americans were very well aware of the extent of the strength of ISIL. They were very well aware of the plans that the ISIL had. You know ISIL has such tactical and strategic prowess that it is inconceivable that it is operating alone in such a way that they are able to outfox and outsmart everyone in the region.

No, ISIL, all of the parties in the region, be it the Sunnis or the Shias, they are being played like pawns because the Americans are claiming to have been not knowledgeable of the strength of ISIL and they are doing so at the expense of their own reputation and in favor of their own long-term strategic goals. This is what is happening today.

So what happened is that during the civil war, the beginning of the civil war, the revolt in Syria, Saudi Arabia took a certain strategy through Bandar bin Sultan who is now removed from his position in the sense that they would fund and arm such organizations as ISIL in order to gain ground in Syria. The Saudis now are aware of the threat that has happened but the Americans are the ones who are instrumentalizing ISIL in order to accomplish their goals in the region. 

And also there is a journalist in Georgia who conducted an investigation, he conducted an investigation in Georgia and found out that the commander of ISIS turned out to be an operative of the Georgian intelligence. 


Source: http://www.presstv.ir/detail/2014/09/03/377581/isil-takfiris-created-by-cia-mossad/