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Detail explanation how Muslims regard non-Muslims, and how they should deal with them according to Islamic sharee’ah?

Praise be to Allaah.   

1-     Islam is the religion of mercy and justice.

2-     Muslims are commanded to call non-Muslims to Islam with wisdom and beautiful preaching and by debating in a manner that is better. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“And argue not with the people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians), unless it be in (a way) that is better (with good words and in good manner, inviting them to Islamic Monotheism with His Verses), except with such of them as do wrong”

[al-‘Ankaboot 29:46]

3-     Allaah does not accept any religion other than Islam. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“And whoever seeks a religion other than Islam, it will never be accepted of him, and in the Hereafter he will be one of the losers”

[Aal ‘Imraan 3:85]

4-     The Muslims should give the kaafirs the opportunity to hear the words of Allaah. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“And if anyone of the Mushrikoon (polytheists, idolaters, pagans, disbelievers in the Oneness of Allaah) seeks your protection then grant him protection so that he may hear the Word of Allaah (the Qur’aan) and then escort him to where he can be secure”

[al-Tawbah 9:6]

5-     The Muslims should differentiate between different kinds of kaafirs in their dealings with them. They should make peace with those who make peace, and wage war against those who wage war, and wage jihad against those who stand in the way of spreading the message of Islam and causing it to prevail of earth.

6-     With regard to matters of love and hate in the heart, the Muslims’ attitude towards non-Muslims is based on the latter’s attitude towards Allaah. If they worship Allaah and do not associate anything in worship with Him, then they love them. If they associate others in worship with Him, or disbelieve in Him, or worship others alongside Him, or are hostile towards His religion and hate the truth, then it is obligatory to hate them in our hearts.

7-     Hating them in our hearts does not mean that we should oppress or mistreat them under any circumstances, because Allaah said to His Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), describing what his attitude should be towards the People of the Book:

“and I am commanded to do justice among you. Allaah is our Lord and your Lord. For us our deeds and for you your deeds”

[al-Shoora 42:15 – interpretation of the meaning]

even though he is a Muslim and they are following Judaism or Christianity.

8-     The Muslims believe that it is not permissible, under any circumstances whatsoever, for a Muslim to mistreat a non-Muslim who is not hostile towards Islam; so the Muslim should not commit aggression against him, or frighten him, or terrorize him, or steal his wealth, or embezzle him, or deprive him of his rights, or deny him his trust, or deny him his wages, or withhold from him the price of his goods when buying from him or withhold the profits of a partnership if he is in a business partnership with him.

9-     The Muslims believe that it is obligatory upon the Muslims to honour treaties or agreements made with a non-Muslim party. If a Muslim has agreed to their conditions when seeking permission to enter their country (i.e., a visa) and has promised to adhere to that, then it is not permissible for him to commit mischief in their land, to betray anyone, to steal, to kill or to do any destructive action, and so on.

10-The Muslims believe that in the case of non-Muslims who wage war against them and drive them out of their homes, or help others to do so, it is permissible for Muslims to shed the blood of these non-Muslims and confiscate their wealth.

11-The Muslims believe that it is permissible for a Muslim to treat kindly those non-Muslims who are not hostile, whether by offering financial help, feeding the hungry, giving them loans if needed or interceding with regard to permissible matters, or speaking kindly to them or returning their greetings, and so on. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“Allaah does not forbid you to deal justly and kindly with those who fought not against you on account of religion nor drove you out of your homes. Verily, Allaah loves those who deal with equity”

[al-Mumtahanah 60:8]

12-There is no reason why Muslims should not cooperate with non-Muslims with regard to establishing truth and combating falsehood, to support the oppressed and ward off danger from mankind, such as cooperating to fight pollution or to protect the environment, or to combat epidemic diseases and so on.

13-The Muslims believe that there are differences between Muslims and non-Muslims in specific rulings such as diyah (blood money), inheritance, marriage, guardianship in marriage, entering Makkah etc., as is explained in the books of Islamic fiqh (jurisprudence). This is based on the commands of Allaah and His Messenger Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him). We cannot regard as equal one who believes in Allaah alone with no partner or associate and one who disbelieves in Allaah or one who disbelieves in Allaah and joins others in worship with Him, or who turns away from the true religion.

14-Muslims are commanded to call people to Allaah in all the Muslim countries and other lands. They must convey the true religion of Allaah to the world and build mosques in all parts of the world, and send daa’iyahs (callers) to non-Muslim countries and invite their leaders to enter the religion of Allaah.

15-The Muslims believe that other people who are following other religions are not following any true religion, so the Muslims do not allow others to send missionaries to build churches in Muslim countries. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“Is then he who is a believer like him who is a Faasiq (disbeliever and disobedient to Allaah)? Not equal are they”

[al-Sajdah 32:18]

Whoever thinks that Islam is equal to other religions is making a serious mistake. But the Muslim scholars have opened the door to debate with non-Muslims and allow the opportunity to discuss with and listen to non-Muslims and explain the truth to them.

Finally, Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“Say (O Muhammad): O people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians): Come to a word that is just between us and you, that we worship none but Allaah (Alone), and that we associate no partners with Him, and that none of us shall take others as lords besides Allaah.’ Then, if they turn away, say: ‘Bear witness that we are Muslims’”

[Aal ‘Imraan 3:64]

“And had the people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians) believed, it would have been better for them”

[Aal ‘Imraan 3:110].

Source: http://islamqa.info/en/26721


بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

Kaleef K. Karim

It is common among Christians (missionaries) to say: – “the Quran got the Trinity wrong.” Hence, they assume that the Trinity that is mentioned in the Quran speaks of Mary as part of the Christian Trinity. What they do not perceive, no where in the Quranic verses they cite, does it even indicate Mary of being part of the Trinity, as we will investigate shortly.  What I will do in this article is, cite as many references from Christians that Mary was indeed God by certain Christians, and she was part of the Trinity. I will also respond to all the passages missionaries use as evidence against the Quran. Let’s now read the verses they use as proof that the Quran says ‘Mary is part of the Trinity’,

Quran 5:116 – And [beware the Day] when Allah will say, “O Jesus, Son of Mary, did you say to the people, ‘Take me and my mother as deities besides Allah?’” He will say, “Exalted are You! It was not for me to say that to which I have no right. If I had said it, You would have known it. You know what is within myself, and I do not know what is within Yourself. Indeed, it is You who is Knower of the unseen.

From this passage Christians think it speaks about the Trinity, but they are wrong. If they read the verse from start to end they will not find the word “Trinity” in the passage. Another passage they use as proof that the Quran got the Trinity wrong is,

Quran 4:171 – “O People of the Book! Commit no excesses in your religion: Nor say of God aught but the truth. Christ Jesus the son of Mary was (no more than) an apostle of God, and His Word, which He bestowed on Mary, and a spirit proceeding from Him: so believe in God and His apostles. Say not “Trinity” : desist: it will be better for you: for God is one God: Glory be to Him: (far exalted is He) above having a son. To Him belong all things in the heavens and on earth. And enough is God as a Disposer of affairs.”

Again the above verse does not say anything about Mary being part of the Trinity. If anybody reads the passage carefully, it is clear that the verse is mainly speaking of Jesus. The name of Mary is used, because Allah is elucidating, making Christians ponder that Jesus son of Mary was only a messenger of God, and through His (God’s) command he (Jesus) became a created being that was born in the womb of Mary. Then after that, Allah says, “say not Trinity” (or Three). It is quite clear that the verse does not say anything about Mary being part of the Trinity. So, the Quran is not wrong, it is the missionaries who are lying and distorting the Quranic verses who are wrong.

 The Quran does speak about the Trinity somewhere else, but says nothing about Mary being part of the Trinity. Here is the verse:

Quran 5:73 –
 “They do blaspheme who say: God is one of three in a Trinity: for there is no god except One God. If they desist not from their word (of blasphemy), verily a grievous penalty will befall the blasphemers among them.”

As you have read the above passage it speaks about the Trinity, but does not mention anything about, Mary being part of the Trinity.

Another thing critics (Missionaries) love citing for chapter 4 verse 171, is classic commentaries such as Tafsir al-Jalalayn, and Tanwîr al-Miqbâs min Tafsîr Ibn ‘Abbâs, by that they conclude the Quran is a false book and not from God, since they believe the Trinity consists of “the Father, Son and Mary.” Nowhere in the verse (Quran 4:71) does it indicate that the Trinity consists of, “the Father, Son and Mary.” Even if we agree with what some of the commentators like: Tafsir al-Jalalayn and Tanwîr al-Miqbâs min Tafsîr Ibn ‘Abbâs said, it will not disprove what the Quran already stated. The Scholars made that comment, because they were referring to some Christian sects, who believed that Trinity doctrine consisted of the “Father, the Son and Mary.” Another thing if you read their exegesis, nowhere will you see them mention that this ‘belief was believed by all Christians.’ There is vast amount of evidence from the Church Fathers that, there was a certain sect in Arabia that believed the Trinity consisted of: “Father, the Son and Virgin Mary.”

1. George Sale

“This notion of the divinity of the virgin Mary was also believed by some at the council of Nicewho said there two gods besides the Father, viz., Christ and the Virgin Mary, and were thence named Mariamites. Others imagined her to be exempt from humanity, and deified; which goes but little beyond the Popish superstition in calling her the compliment of the Trinity, as if it were imperfect with her. This foolish imagination is justly condemned in the Koran as idolatrous….” [1]

2. Reverend Gilbert Reid D.D.

As to Christianity as it was represented in Arabia, it was not a clear untarnished theism, but tritheism. The Heavenly Father, Mary the mother of God and Jesus their son, were WORSHIPPED as three Gods, and their images appeared in the churches along with the images of other saints. Christianity as taught by Christ had lost its identity in the formalism and errors of the church of Arabia. Still more the truths pro-claimed by God through all the ages had been lost sight amid the vain imaginings of men’s hearts. The only God of, an omnipresent spirit, without form or body. The reformation of Mohammed was thus a return to the first and second commandment of the Prophet Moses, which Jesus himself had taught.” [2]

3. Washington Irving

The Mariamites, or worshippers of Mary, regarded the Trinity as consisting of God the Father, God the Son, and God the Virgin Mary. The Collydrians were a sect of Arabian Christians, composed chiefly of females. They worshipped the Virgin Mary as possessed of divinity…..” [3]

4. English theologian Theophilus Lindsey writes:

“The followers of Christ had been for some ages quarrelling and destroying each other in their heat’s and disputes, not concerning the Supreme Father of all, to whom they paid little attention; but about the nature of Christ. And of the Holy Spirit, and many other objects of worship, which they invented. (t) The notion of the divinity of the Virgin Mary was believed by some even at the council of Nice: who said there were two gods besides the Father, viz. Christ and the Virgin Mary, and were thence names Mariamites. Others imagined her to be exempt from humanity, and deified: which goes but little beyond the Popish superstition, in calling her the complement of the Trinity….” [4]

5. William Cook Taylor

“In Arabia itself some of the worst heresies were propagated: the chief of these were the heresies of the Ebonites, the Nazareans, and the Collydrians, the last of which derived its name from the collyris, or twisted cake offered by them to the Virgin Mary, whom they worshipped as a deity. It is known to all readers of ecclesiastical history that a sect called Mariamites exalted the Virgin to a participation in the Godhead, and that writers of the Romish Church have named her the ‘complement of the Trinity.’….” [5]

6. John Holmes

“….Jacobites, so called from Jacobus, Bishop of Edessa in Syria, and whose doctrine, directly contrary to that of the Nestorians in one point, denied the double nature of Christ in his state of incarnation: Mariamites, so called because they worshipped the Virgin Mary, and regarded her as, along with the Father, and the Son one of the persons of the Divine Trinity…. “[6]

7. John Henry Blunt D.D. :

“In Accordance with which are the statements of certain writers, logically in agreement with the worship they advocate, that St. Mary has been assumed into the Trinity, so as to make it a quaternity, that Mary is the ‘compliment of the Trinity.’” [7]

8. Allan Freer

Nestorians, so called from their founder, Nestorius, Bishop of Constantinople and whose heresy consisted in a recondite distinction between Jesus the man, and Christ the God-man; Jacobites, so-called from Jacobus, Bishop of Edessa in Syria, and whose doctrine directly contrary to that of the Nestorians in one point, denied the double nature of Christ in his state of incarnation: Mariamites, so-called because they worshipped the virgin Mary, and regarded her as, along with the Father and the Son, One of the persons of the divine Trinity: and collydrians, a sect guilty of similar heresy, and deriving their name from their practice of offering to the virgin Mary a particular kind of cake, called Collyris.[8]

9. John William Draper

In the east, in consequence of the policy of the court of Constantinople, the Church had been torn in pieces by contentions and schisms. Among a countless host of disputants may be mentioned Arians, Basilidians, Carpocritains, Collydrians, Eutychians, Gnostics, Jacobites, Marcionites, Marionites, Nestorians, Sabellians, Vallentians. Of these the ; the Collydrians worshipped the Virgin as a divinity, offering her sacrifices of cakes…. [9]

We can see from all the references quoted, that Mary was indeed believed to be part of the Trinity, by certain Christian sects of Arabia.

Question: “why does the Quran in chapter 5 verse 116 state Mary is a God?”

Well it is obvious the Quran is in dialectic discussion with the native Arabs of the time, when it was first revealed. The Quran naturally responds to ideas and teachings of people had at that time. So the Quran is correcting their error in worshipping Mary and bringing them back to the path of worshipping God as One and none else besides Him i.e. no worship of Mary or Jesus. The Quran also makes it abundantly clear that Jesus never told people any of this. Allah is asking Jesus on the day of judgement “did you tell people to worship You and your Mother as Gods?” In the presence of the people, to bring them to judgement. It will be obvious that Jesus won’t accept any responsibility as he is not the one who commanded such thing.

Here are many more academic sources that attest to Mary being worshipped as a God

1. Reverend Henry Adelbert Thomson (Cincinnati, Ohio)

It is plain that the tendency to sail with the popular wind, which existed in church dignitaries of that age as well as in this, easily prevailed on many who held ecclesiastical office, so that they approved or winked at beliefs and practices which more independent clergymen considered erroneous. The people carried the clergy along with them. Even the fearless and powerful Augustine, and with him such strenuous men as John Chrysostom and two Gregories of Nazianzen and Nyssa, were unable to stem the tide in some matters of which were disapproved. The worship of Mary and the Saints met the popular mood and pleased the popular fancy; so the great leaders. Confronted by an enthusiasm they were really powerless to curb, endeavoured to the point out and maintain a distinction between latreia and douleia. But, once having given way, even partially, to the prevailing opinion, these same great men were afterward quoted as conservators and expounders of the tradition which, through them, thus received the more impressive authority….. the pure Christian doctrine had led to veneration of Saints; the adoration of the feminine ideal, together with the peculiar relationship of Mary to Christ, had designated her as “Queen of Saints;”….. the practice of Mariolatry gained a tremendous impulse, along with the Worship of Saints, especially in the post Nicene period….. the Church was still more effectually darkened and its doctrine debased. In such a period those elements of the Faith which almost readily lent themselves to idolatry suffered most in purity and gained most in practice. Saints, relics, images, with Mary, as Queen of Heaven, at their head, almost completely absorbed the worship of the people. [10]

2. Ernst Benz

The virgin birth entered into creeds of all Christendom and became one of the strongest motifs in the liturgy and worship of the early Church. Veneration of the mother of God took a tremdous leap from the moment Constantine made Christianity the official religion of the Empire and the pagan masses began pouring into the Church. For thousands of years the religious mentality of the peoples of the Mediterranean basin and near East had been shaped by the cult of the great Mother Goddess and Divine Virgin. From the ancient popular religions of Babylonian Ishtar to the mystery religions of the late Hellenistic age the great Goddess had been worshipped under a variety of forms. The peoples who had practiced her cult could not easily adjust to the sole dominance of the Father God and to the strictly patriarchal structure of Judaic religiosity, which had been taken over by the early Christians. This ancient tradition sought a new mode of expression within the Christian Church and found it in adoration of the Virginal Mother of God in whom the mysterious union of the divine Logos with human nature had been accomplished…. In Egypt the veneration of Mary began very early. Origen, the Alexandrian father of the Church, employed the term theotokos- God bearer in the third century. The second council of Ephesus gave its sanction to this title. The second council of Constantinople added the epithet ever-lasting Virgin.” The prayers and hymns of the Orthodox Church invoke the name of the Mother of God as often as the names of Christ and the Holy Trinity. A god example of such homage is found in the Eucharistic liturgy of St. John Chrysostom, at the conclusion of the great intercessory prayer: “Truly worthy is it to praise Thee God bearer, eternally blessed and perfectly irreproachable Mother of our God, who art more worthy of honor than the cherubim and incomparably more glorious than the seraphim, who intact, hast borne the Divine Logos-Thee the true Mother of God, we Praise.” [11]

3. Professor of the New Testament Beverly Roberts Gaventa writes:

“Orthodox theologians insist Mary is deserving of this grace, and it is for that reason that she is identified as Panhagia, or All Holy. From birth she is without sin. Her own holiness and her divine maternity warrant the high veneration given to her by the Church. Mary is “the first of all humanity to have attained, through the complete transfiguration of her being, that to which every creature is summoned. She has already transcended the boundary between time and eternity and now finds herself in the Kingdom which the Church awaits with the second coming of Christ.” Because of Mary’s own holiness, she stands in solidarity with the sanctified humanity who constitute with the Church. For those reasons, Orthodox Christian tradition icons and hymns praise Mary at ‘the centre of the Saints as a representation of the worshipping and praying community.’”[12]

4. Professor James R. Adair

“….the highest veneration was given to Mary, the mother of Jesus. Historically Marian veneration can be connected with the controversies over the use of the term theotokos, rejected by Nestorius but accepted by most Christians of the day. The veneration of Mary was especially popular among the common people and the Monks, particularly in the EAST.” [13]

5. Reverend James Gardner

“Mariolatry, the worship of the Virgin Mary. In the fourth century, in consequence of prevalence of the ascetic spirit, the most extravagant opinions began to be entertained of the merit of virginity, and Mary, the mother of our blessed Lord, was venerated as the ideal of the celibate life. About this time an opinion arose that there were in the temple of Jerusalem virgins consecrated to God, among whom Mary grew up in vows of perpetual Virginity. In the end of the fourth, it became customary to apply to Mary the appellation, “Mother of God.” …the worshippers of Mary prevailed, and in the fifth century images of the Virgin were placed in the Churches holding the infant Jesus in her arms. Once introduced, this species of worship spread rapidly, and Mary became a conspicuous object of veneration in the Churches, both of the East and West. .. towards the close of the tenth century the custom became prevalent among the Latins, of celebrating masses, and abstaining from flesh on Saturdays, in honour of Mary. About the same time the daily office of St. Mary, which the Latins call lesser office, was introduced, and it was afterwards confirmed by Pope Urban II. In the council of Clement. The Rosary also came into use, consisting of fifteen repetitions of the Lord’s prayer, and one hundred salutations of St. Mary; and the Crown of St. Mary, as it was called by the Latins consisted of six or seven repetitions of the Lord’s prayer, and sixty or seventy salutations according to the age ascribed by different authors to the Holy Virgin. Mariolatry now became an established doctrine and practice in the Church of Rome, and down to the present day has continued to occupy a very spicuous place in her ritual; while with equal intensity Mary receives the worship of Oriental Church under the name of Panagia, or All-Holy….” [14]

6. German Professor Johann Heinrich Kurtz

….the Collydrians- a female sect in Arabia dating from the fourth century- who offered to her bread-cakes (in imitation of the heathen worship of ceres). Epiphanius, who opposed that sect, maintained:…. On the Antidicomarianites, comp. 92. But during the Nestorian controversy Mariolatry became again more general in the Church. In the fifth century, the 25th march was celebrated as the Feast of the Annunciation…… [15]

7. Church of England Magazine

I will next give you a quotation from the Psalter of St. Bonaventura, which was published at Rome in 1834 with the sanction of the master of the so-called apostolical palace and his deputy. This at least is authorized. Its compiler was made a saint of the Roman Church: “in thee, O lady, have I put my trust; I shall not be confounded for ever: receive me into thy favour. … Thou art my strength and my refuge, my consolatation and my defence. …. Into thine hands, O lady I commend my spirit, all my life, and my last day” (Ps. Xxx.). the Te Deum was parodied by the same writer; and they who use his devotional books are taught thus to address the Virgin Mary; “We praise thee, the mother of God; All earth doth worship thee, the spouse of the eternal Father. To thee all angels ad archangels, to thee thrones and principalities, humbly do service. …. Praise becometh thee, empire becometh thee: to thee be virtue (or power) and glory forever and ever. Amen”. These extracts are quite sufficient to prove that acts of worship are paid to the Virgin Mary, with the sanction and approbation of your church….. this practice, so dishonouring to God, began towards the latter part of the fourth century. It was devised by the Collyridians, who “worshipped the blessed Virgin as a goddess, and judged it necessary to appease her anger and seek her favour and protection, by libatations, sacrifices, and oblations of cakes (collyridiane), such like services. …… the ancient father, Epiphanius, condemned the Collyridians for believing that the blessed Virgin was God; and hence he tells them: ‘The body of Mary was truly holy, but not a god.’… [16]

8. Reverend John Dowling

When we observe, on the one hand, the earnest manner in which these fathers contend for perpetual virginity of Mary, and on the other hand the extravagant honors attached to the virgin state, we need not be surprised that the notion soon became prevalent among some that ‘ the mother of God.’ As she was now frequently denominated, was herself worthy of the honors of divine worship. Accordingly, about this time, we find that a sect sprang up, whose peculiar tenet it was, that the Virgin Mary should be adored in worship, and that religious honors should be paid to her. They were called Collyridians, from collyridae, the cakes which they offered to the virgin…… [17]

9. Church of England quarterly review

The first persons upon record, as offering divine honours to the Virgin Mary, were the Collyridians, who derived their names from the…, or certain cakes, which they offered annually to Saint Mary, in sacrifice upon her festival, when they worshipped her as a goddess. This superstition came from Thrace, and the yet more distant regions of Scythia and Arabia…… [18]

10. Professor of the New Testament studies Amy-Jill Levine writes:

“There are even stronger hints that Mary was venerated as a goddess. By the fourth century, Epiphanius (315-403 CE) was ordering the faithful not to worship Mary but only the Father, Son and Holy Spirit, suggesting that such activity had been transpiring for a while.” [19]

11. Professor of religious studies Gail Paterson Corrington:

“It would certainly not have been surprising if the Christian women of Egypt had found another divine mother with whom to identify; the Christian women of Arabia, to Epiphanius’s consternation, did a similar thing in their worship of Mary rather than Jesus… The cakes (kollybas) offered by the Collyridians to Mary in the worship are described in a way similar to the cakes offered Isis as the queen of heaven….” [20]

12. Mary Walsh

“The first council’s decision was approved, and Mary was the theotokos, ‘The Mother of God.’ This date, A.D. 431, marks the time when Mary was in the ascendancy, and her veneration and worship began. …. About the middle of the fourth century, according to Jerome, Augistine, Gregory, Epiphanius, and others, teachings came in regarding Virgins who had taken the vows of sanctity and chastity and who devoted their lives to the service of the temple at Jerusalem. Among these virgins was Mary, who had consecrated her life to God by taking the vow of perpetual virginity. It was declared that her marriage to Joseph was formal, and that she continued a virgin until her death. This was the new teaching, and it caused long debated arguments as to whether Mary was actually was a perpetual virgin. The other phrase of the new teaching was that Mary was the ‘Mother of God’ and was therefore entitled to devotion and honor. These extravagant honors conferred on Mary led to the development of a sect called Collyridian, derived from the word collyridae, the cakes which were offered to the Virgin. This sect regards Mary as worthy of divine worship. Thus the floodgates were opened for the beatification of the Virgin.” [21]

13. Thomas Anthony Trollope

Collyridians, from Greek word signifying a piece of bread or cake in a cylindrical form; a sect of Christians, who arose towards the conclusion of the fourth century, and, together with another sect, called the Antidico-Marianites, filled all Arabia with controversies and disorder. These latter maintained that the Virgin Mary did not preserve immaculate state after the birth of Christ, in jospeh autem mariti sui concubitu adhuc indulgebat. The Collyridians, on contrary, who are said to have chiefly consisted of women, worshipped the Virgin as a goddess, and sought favours by libations, sacrifices, and oblations of cakes. [22]

14. Professor Maxwell E. Johnson

“Epiphanuis of Salamis (315-403 CE), according to his witness, not only was there in existence an anti-marian group called the Antidicomarianites, who denied Mary’s perpetual virginity, but also an EXTREME pro-marian group, known as the Conllydrians (from cakes), a group compromised mostly of women who worshipped Mary as a goddess, offered her and then consumed small cakes, and had a female priesthood…..” [23]

15. German Protestant theologian and Church historian Phillip Schaff also makes mention that Mary was worshipped:

“Epiphanius, in his seventy-eighth heresy, combats the advocates of the opposite view in Arabia toward the end of fourth century (367), as heretics under the title of Antidiomarianites, opposer’s of the dignity of Mary i.e., of her perpetual virginity. But, on the other hand, he condemns, in the seventy-ninth heresy, the contemporaneous sect of the Collyridians in Arabia, a set of fanatical women, who, as priestesses rendered divine Worship to Mary…..”[24]

16. Reverend George William D. Evans

The religious worship now paid to the virgin seems clearly deducible from that which was paid to the female deities of old. How reluctantly the converts from heathenism bade adieu to that sex as objects of worship, is evident from heretical opinions held by the sect of the Collydrians- a sect which arose towards the close of the fourth century, and offered up cakes (collyridae) to the Virgin Mary, as a goddess, and the Queen of heaven….. [25]

17. Erich Fromm

“In the Nestorian controversy a decision against Nestorius was reached in 431 that Mary was not only the mother of Christ but also the mother of God, and at the end of the fourth century there arose a cult of Mary, and men addressed prayers to her. About the same time the representation of Mary in the plastic arts also began to play a great and ever-increasing role. The succeeding centuries attached more and more significance to the mother of God, and her worship became more exuberant and more general. Altars were erected to her, and her pictures were shown everywhere.” [26]

18. English historian Edward Gibbon writes:

“The Christians of the Seventh century had insensibly relapsed into a semblance of paganism: their public and private vows were addressed to the relics and images that disgraced the temples of the East: the throne of the Almighty was darkened by a cloud of martyrs, and saints, and angels, the objects of popular veneration; and the Collydrian heretics, who flourished in the fruitful soil of Arabia, invested the Virgin Mary with the name and honors of a goddess. The mysteries of the Trinity and incarnation appear to contradict the principle of the Divine unity. In their obvious sense, they introduce three equal deities, and transform the man Jesus into the substance of the Son of God: and orthodox commentary will satisfy only a believing mind: intemperate curiosity and zeal had torn the veil of the sanctuary; and each of the Oriental sects was eager to confess that all, except themselves, deserved the reproach of Idolatry and Polytheism. The Creed of Mahomet is free from suspicion or ambiguity; and the Koran is a glorious testimony to the unity of God. The Prophet of Mecca rejected the worship of idols and men, of stars and planets, on the rational principle that whatever rises must set, that whatever is born must die, that whatever is corruptible must decay and perish.” [27]

We can conclude that the Quran nowhere says that “Mary is part of the Trinity.” I refuted the critics attacks on the Scholars (commentators of the Quran), they also never said, “Mary is believed by all Christians to be part of the Trinity.” Their views were based on certain sects of Arabia, which believed Mary is part of the Triune formula. I also referenced two dozen or more quotes from Christian experts, that Virgin Mary indeed was worshipped and she was part of the Trinity. I believe everything I have presented is in my favour that the Quran is not wrong in responding to the Christians of that time, hence the people who are wrong and lying are the cunning missionaries, who are desperate to say anything to degrade Islam.


[1] George Sale, The Koran translation and Notes (2007), page 27
[2] Gilbert Reid, The Biblical World > Volume. 48, Number. 1, Page 12
[3] Washington Irving, Mohammed [Edition published 2007 by Wordsworth Editions] Page 47
[4] Theophilus Lindsey An Examination of Mr. Robinson of Cambridge’s Plea for the Divinity of Our Jesus Christ [London: Printed for J. Johnson, No. 72 St. Paul’s Church-Yard] page 124
[5] William Cooke Taylor Readings in Biography: A Selection of the Lives of Eminent Men of All Nations [The second Edition. London: John W. Parker, West Strand. (1899)] Page 192
[6] The Eclectic Magazine: Foreign Literature science and Art. [September to December 1850.] Volume 21 By John Holmes Agnew, Walter Hilliard Bidwell page 40
[7] Dictionary of Doctrinal and Historical Theology edited by John Henry Blunt page 441
[8] Allan Freer: The North British Review [Febraury 1850 – August 1850. Volume 13, Page 197
[9] John William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science page 78 – 79 [New York : D. Appleton and company 1875]
[10] Henry Adelbert Thompson The Catholic Cultus of the Virgin Mary The American Journal of Theology: Volume. 10, No. 3, Page 480 – 484
[11] Ernst Benz The Eastern Orthodox Church: Its Thought and Life, page 61 – 62
[12] Beverly Roberts Gaventa Mary: Glimpses of the Mother of Jesus page 15 -16
[13] James R. Adair, Introducing Christianity Page 207
[14] Reverend James Gardner, The faiths of the world : an account of all religions and religious sects, their doctrines, rites, ceremonies, and customs (1858) Volume 6, page 372 – 373
[15] German Professor Johann Heinrich Kurtz History of the Christian Church to the Reformation page 223
[16] The Church of England Magazine Under The Superintendence of Clergymen of the United Church of England and Ireland, Volume 30, January to June 1851 page 364
[17] Reverend John Dowling The History of Romanism: from the Earliest Corruptions of Christianity to the present time [sixth edition 1845] Page 82
[18] The Church of England quarterly review, volume 9 page 172 [London: William Edward Painter, 342 strand]
[19] A Feminist Companion to Mariology edited by Amy-Jill Levine, Maria Mayo Robbins page 173
[20] Gail Paterson Corrington Her Image of Salvation: Female Saviors and Formative Christianity page 96 – 97
[21] Mary Walsh Bible Lessons For Catholics [Copy right 2002, Published by TEACH services, INC.] Page 70 – 71
[22] Thomas Anthony Trollope An encyclopædia ecclesiastica; or, A complete history of the Church page 403
[23] Maxwell E. Johnson Praying and believing In early Christianity page 83
[24] Phillip Schaff History of the Christian Church, Volume 3
[25] Reverend George William D. Evans The classic and connoisseur in Italy and Sicily, with an appendix: volume 2 page 59 (1835)
[26] Erich Fromm. The Dogma of Christ: And Other Essays on Religion, Psychology and Culture page 62 – 63
[27] [Edward Gibbon. The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire Volume 6 page 249 [Philadelphia 1816]

Mary worshipped as a God

Mary worshiped as a God


A Christian wrote about ALLAH as a response to Robert Morey’s moon god allegation.

This is to prove you that Christians with the name ALLAH in their bible, displease, and angry with such allegation.

This article in in Indonesian language, I will translate to english when I have time in sha Allah. Please visit the site:


Kelompok “Pengagum Nama Yahweh” tak henti-hentinya memprovokasi umat dan mengklaim nama TUHAN yang paling sahih adalah “YAHWEH” dan memprovokasi umat bahwa nama “Allah” adalah nama Tuhannya orang Muslim saja, dan selanjutnya juga mengklaim “Allah” adalah berhala (dewa bulan, dewa air, dst…). Banyak pengaruh buruk dari buku kacau THE ISLAMIC INVASIONkarangan Robert Morey yang mengklaim/ memprovokasi bahkan memfitnah nama Allah. Buku ini menjadi preseden buruk bagi kalangan Kristiani sendiri.

Dari bacaan buku ‘The Islamic Invasion’ kita dapat mengukur sampai dimana pengertian Robert Morey tentang Islam sehingga saya yang mempelajari Islam sekedarnya bisa mempertanyakan sampai dimana mutu “Ph.D. in Islamic Studies from an accredited University” (which university?) dari Robert Morey itu.
Seorang PhD in Islamic Studies yang tidak pernah membaca QS.22:40 dan berkesimpulan nama Allah dipaksakan oleh otoritas Islam ketika Alkitab Arab ditulis 3 abad setelah ayat QS itu ditulis?

Silahkan baca : http://www.pakistanchristianpost.com/ar … ?artid=181
atau baca di facts-about-robert-a-morey-vt958.html#p2752

Situs itu menolong kita mengerti seberapa jauh bobot ‘The Islamic Invasion’ yang juga banyak dikritik di USA sendiri. Yang jelas bukunya telah menimbulkan reaksi di kalangan Islam karena isinya yang menghina Islam dan memprovokasi orang Kristen namun kurang dilandasi pengertian mengenai Islam dengan benar.

Tentang Nama Allah. Di situs ini memuat banyak artikel tentang nama-nama Allah, sbb :

– NAMA ALLAH STUDY KATA, di nama-allah-study-kata-1-vt5.html#p10

– NAMA ALLAH STUDY KATA – 2, di nama-allah-study-kata-2-vt6.html#p11

– Study Kata : YHVH – – YEHOVÂH, di yhvh-yehovah-study-kata-vt7.html#p22

– NAMA-NAMA YEHOVAH DENGAN GELAR, di nama-nama-yehovah-dengan-gelar-vt611.html#p1391

Kami disini tidak “membenci” nama YAHWEH, tapi kami tidak menyukai “pembodohan” yang dilontarkan kelompok itu.
Kami menghormati nama Allah yang mana saja, YHVH, YHWH, YAHWEH, YEHOVAH, KURIOS, THEOS, ELOAH, ELOHIM, EL, ELAH, ELAHA, ALLAH, dll.

Ketika “nama ALLAH” dipermasalahkan, kita harus mengerti apakah kata ALLAH identik dengan Allah umat muslim saja? apakah itu nama berhala? Dalam naskah bahasa asli Alkitab kita Perjanjian Lama tertulis :

” בְּשֻׁם אֱלָהּ יִשְׂרָאֵל ; BESYUM ‘ELAH YISRA’EL” (Dalam Nama Allah Israel) di Ezra 5:1. Dalam Ezra 6:14 juga tertulis ” אֱלָהּ יִשְׂרָאֵל – ‘ELAH YISRA’EL” (Allah Israel).

* Ezra 5:1
LAI-TB, Tetapi nabi Hagai dan Zakharia bin Ido, kedua nabi itu, bernubuat terhadap orang-orang Yahudi yang tinggal di Yehuda dan di Yerusalem dalam nama Allah Israel, yang menyertai mereka.
KJV, Then the prophets, Haggai the prophet, and Zechariah the son of Iddo, prophesied unto the Jews that were in Judah and Jerusalem in the name of the God of Israel, even unto them.
וְהִתְנַבִּי חַגַּי נְבִיאָה וּזְכַרְיָה בַר־עִדֹּוא נְבִיאַיָּא עַל־יְהוּדָיֵא דִּי בִיהוּד וּבִירוּשְׁלֶם בְּשֻׁם אֱלָהּ יִשְׂרָאֵל עֲלֵיהֹון׃ ס

Kalimat ini tertera dalam Alkitab Perjanjian Lama ditulis dalam aksara Ibrani dengan pengertian bahasa Aram, bahasa yang notabene merupakan induk bahasa Arab. Dalam dialek bahasa Arab, kalimat itu dibaca ‘Bismilah’ (Dalam Nama Allah).

* Ezra 6:14
LAI-TB, Para tua-tua orang Yahudi melanjutkan pembangunan itu dengan lancar digerakkan oleh nubuat nabi Hagai dan nabi Zakharia bin Ido. Mereka menyelesaikan pembangunan menurut perintah Allah Israel dan menurut perintah Koresh, Darius dan Artahsasta, raja-raja negeri Persia.
KJV, And the elders of the Jews builded, and they prospered through the prophesying of Haggai the prophet and Zechariah the son of Iddo. And they builded, and finished it, according to the commandment of the God of Israel, and according to the commandment of Cyrus, and Darius, and Artaxerxes king of Persia.
וְשָׂבֵי יְהוּדָיֵא בָּנַיִן וּמַצְלְחִין בִּנְבוּאַת חַגַּי נְבִיאָה וּזְכַרְיָה בַּר־עִדֹּוא וּבְנֹו וְשַׁכְלִלוּ מִן־טַעַם אֱלָהּ יִשְׂרָאֵל וּמִטְּעֵם כֹּורֶשׁ וְדָרְיָוֶשׁ וְאַרְתַּחְשַׁשְׂתְּא מֶלֶךְ פָּרָס׃

Naskah Perjanjian Lama dalam kitab Daniel juga berbahasa Aram, menggunakan nama “Allah” dalam dialek Aramaic אֱלָהָא – ‘ELAHA’, sbb :

* Daniel 2:20
LAI-TB, Berkatalah Daniel: ‘Terpujilah nama Allah dari selama-lamanya sampai selama-lamanya, sebab dari pada Dialah hikmat dan kekuatan!
KJV, Hear, O Israel: The LORD our God is one LORD:
עָנֵה דָנִיֵּאל וְאָמַר לֶהֱוֵא שְׁמֵהּ דִּי־אֱלָהָא מְבָרַךְ מִן־עָלְמָא וְעַד־עָלְמָא דִּי חָכְמְתָא וּגְבוּרְתָא דִּי לֵהּ־הִיא׃

אלוה – ‘ELOAH” (Ibrani), אֱלָהָא – ‘ELAHA’ atau אֱלָהּ – ‘ELAH (Aram), dan الله – ALLAH (Arab) memiliki akar kata yang sama.

Ibrani ‘alef – lamed – he’,
Aram: ‘alap – lamad – he’,
dan Arab: ‘alif – lam – haa.

Pengucapannya mirip, asal bahasanya tidak jauh beda karena sama-sama rumpun Semitik, akar katanya. Lihat Artikel “ALEF – LAMED”, di alef-lamed-vt1396.html#p4889



lihat di situs :


Dalam Literatur Islam, yaitu Al-Quran sendiri juga mengakui bahwa orang-orang Kristen dan Yahudi menyembah Allah:

      Q.S. al-Zumar: 38
      “Dan sungguh jika kau (Muhammad) tanyakan kepada mereka, siapakah yang menciptakan seluruh langit dan bumi? pastilah mereka akan menjawab “Allah”

http://islamagamauniversal.wordpress.co … /e_qs_039/

      Q.S. Al-Ankabut: 63
      “Dan sungguh jika kau (Muhammad) tanyakan kepada mereka “Siapakah yang menurunkan air dari langit, sehingga dengan air itu dihidupkan bumi sesudah kematiannya? pastilah mereka akan menjawab “Allah”

Ada buku yang ditulis oleh Bambang Noorsena (“The History of Allah”, Andi, 2005) yang menceritakan di Timur Tengah, sejak dahulu sampai sekarang baik orang Yahudi, Kristen, maupun Islam yang berbahasa Arab sama-sama menyebut ‘Allah’ dalam berbagai dialek Timur Tengah tanpa mempersoalkannya. (Bambang sekarang tinggal di Kairo, Mesir).

Jadi memang aneh kalau ada orang di Malaysia, Indonesia, dan Amerika (Robert Morey dengan bukunya : The Islamic Invasion) menganggap bahwa nama Allah itu ‘haram’ dipakai umat Kristen, itu berarti bahwa semua orang Kristen di Indonesia, Malaysia, dan Negara-negara berbahasa Arab dari dahulu sampai sekarang, semuanya tidak selamat karena menghujat Tuhan dengan menyebut Allah (yang dianggap nama ‘dewa bulan/air’). Sekarang ada 4 (empat) versi Alkitab berbahasa Arab dan semuanya menggunakan nama ‘Allah.’

” בְּשֻׁם אֱלָהּ יִשְׂרָאֵל ; BESYUM ELAH YISRA’EL” (Dalam Nama Allah Israel, Ezra 5:1) אֱלָהּ – ‘ELAH di sini ditulis dalam bahasa Aram tetapi dengan aksara Ibrani ‘alef-lamed-he’ yang sekalipun bisa berarti ‘sumpah’ tetapi juga merupakan akar kata “אלוה – ‘ELOAH” dan “ אלהים – ELOHIM“)

Jelas bahwa nama ‘Allah’ sudah digunakan dalam Alkitab Perjanjian Lama pada abad 6sM, setidaknya 13 abad sebelum Al-Quran ditulis. Dan sebaiknya kelompok “pengagum nama YAHWEH” dengan aktivitasnya memprovokasi “mengharamkan” nama “Allah”, menghentikan saja lelucon-nya.
Perlu dipahami pula bahwa kata “ALLAH” digunakan oleh orang-orang Kristen Arab, kita lihat terjemahan Alkitab versi “Arabic Bible”:

Reff: http://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?se … rsion=ALAB


Bandingkan Al-Qur’an, QS 1:1
“Bismi-Allahi ar-Rahmani, ar-Raheem”
“Dengan menyebut nama Allah Yang Maha Pemurah, lagi Maha Penyayang.”
“In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful.” –
http://islamagamauniversal.wordpress.co … /e_qs_001/

* Kejadian 1:1
LAI TB, Pada mulanya Allah menciptakan langit dan bumi.
KJV, In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth.
בְּרֵאשִׁית בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים אֵת הַשָּׁמַיִם וְאֵת הָאָרֶץ׃
Arabic transliteration:
“Fee al-badi’ khalaqa Allahu as-Samaawaat wa al-Ard . . . ”
“In the beginning God created the Heaven and the Earth . . . ”

* Yohanes 3:16
LAI TB, Karena begitu besar kasih Allah akan dunia ini, sehingga Ia telah mengaruniakan Anak-Nya yang tunggal, supaya setiap orang yang percaya kepada-Nya tidak binasa, melainkan beroleh hidup yang kekal.
KJV, For God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in him should not perish, but have everlasting life.
TR, ουτως γαρ ηγαπησεν ο θεος τον κοσμον ωστε τον υιον αυτου τον μονογενη εδωκεν ινα πας ο πιστευων εις αυτον μη αποληται αλλ εχη ζωην αιωνιον
Translit Interlinear, houtôs {demikian} gar {karena} êgapêsen {mengasihi} ho theos {Allah} ton kosmon {(manusia di) dunia} hôste {sehingga} ton huion{anak} autou ton monogenê {yang tunggal/ yang unik} edôken {Ia telah memberikan} hina {supaya} pas {setiap (orang yang)} ho pisteuôn {percaya} eis {kepada} auton {Dia} mê {tidak} apolêtai {menjadi binasa} all {melainkan} ekhê {beroleh} zôên {hidup} aiônion {kekal}
כִּי־אַהֲבָה רַבָּה אָהַב הָאֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָעוֹלָם עַד־אֲשֶׁר נָתַן אֶת־בְּנוֹ אֶת־יְחִידוֹ לְמַעַן אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יֹאבַד כָּל־הַמַּאֲמִין בּוֹ כִּי אִם־יִחְיֶה חַיֵּי עוֹלָם׃
Arabic transliteration:
“Li-annhu haakadha ahabba Allahu al-‘Aalama hataa badhala . . . ”
“For God so loved the world, that . . . ”

* Lukas 1:30
LAI TB, Kata malaikat itu kepadanya: “Jangan takut, hai Maria, sebab engkau beroleh kasih karunia di hadapan Allah.
KJV, And the angel said to her, Fear not, Mary: for you have found favor with God.
TR, και ειπεν ο αγγελος αυτη μη φοβου μαριαμ ευρες γαρ χαριν παρα τω θεω
Translit, kai eipen ho aggelos autê mê phobou mariam eures gar kharin para tô theô
וַיֹּאמֶר לָהּ הַמַּלְאָךְ אַל־תִּירְאִי מִרְיָם כִּי־מָצָאתְ חֵן לִפְנֵי הָאֱלֹהִים׃
Arabic transliteration:
” . . . Laa takhaafee, yaa Maryam, li-annaki qad wajadti ni’amat(an) i’nda Allahi.”
” . . . Fear not, Mary: for thou hast found favor with God.”

* Lukas 3:38
LAI TB, anak Enos, anak Set, anak Adam, anak Allah.
KJV, Which was the son of Enos, which was the son of Seth, which was the son of Adam, which was the son of God.
TR, του ενως του σηθ του αδαμ του θεου
Translit, tou enôs tou sêth tou adam tou theou
בֶּן־אֱנוֹשׁ בֶּן־שֵׁת בֶּן־אָדָם בֶּן־אֱלֹהִים׃
Arabic transliteration:
“bini Anoosha, bini Sheeti, bini Aaadama, abni Allahi.”
“the son of Enos, the son of Seth, the son of Adam, the son of God.”

Ada kajian menarik yang membahas penginjilan rasul Paulus, orang Ibrani asli itu justru sangat luwes memperkenalkan Allah yang disembahnya dengan “nama asing”. Rasul Paulus tentu saja berbahasa Ibrani lebih banyak dari kita, ia tidak menginjil dengan mengharuskan bawa-bawa nama “YHVH” lah yang paling sahih. Silahkan baca kajiannya di nama-allah-strategi-pengabaran-injil-vt395.html#p827

Blessings in Christ
July 12, 2006


Why do I do this?

1. Many Christians picking things from Islamophobe websites, even they claim their website is the best way learning Islam.

2. Christians learning Islam from Islamophobe websites recording hundreds of violent acts around the world they say done by Muslims to show Islam is a religion of violent.

So I sent them back these links, asking them:





This link below, I don’t like the name of it, but they worked hard compiling the lists of Christian Violent acts over the generations.
Remarkable works.
1000 Years of Carnage & Barbarity in the name of Christ

Enforcing the Faith– Missionaries or Murderers?

Act of Faith – Brutal vengeance from the men of God

A Timeline of Catastrophe Darkness Descends on the Greco-Roman World
http://www.jesusneverexisted.com/dark-age.htmHistory of Christian thought on persecution and tolerance

Christian terrorism

Sheall we tell the youngster to learn BIBLE from here?:



29 Sexually Explicit, Profane and Dirty Stories and Verses in the Bible

Bible Verses About Pornography


List of Bible verses not included in modern translations

The NIV leaves out 16 entire verses!


If  they think Islamophobe websites are good place to learn Islam, well, we can learn about Christianity from those webs.



This is the references for people who claim the word ALLAH refer to pagan or moon god or etc.

WIKIPEDIA: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allah
Allah (English pronunciation: /ˈælə/ or /ˈɑːlə/; Arabic: الله‎ Allāh, is the Arabic name for God (al ilāh, iliterally “the God”). THE WORD HAS COGNATES IN OTHER SEMITIC LANGUAGES, INCLUDING ALAH IN ARAMAIC, ʾĒL IN CANAANITE AND ELOHIM IN HEBREW.



Allah, Arabic Allāh (“God”),  the one and only God in Islam. Etymologically, the name Allah is probably a contraction of the Arabic al-Ilāh, “the God.” The name’s origin CAN BE TRACED BACK TO THE EARLIEST SEMITIC WRITINGS in which the word for “god” was il or el, the latter BEING USED IN THE HEBREW BIBLE (OLD TESTAMENT). ALLĀH IS THE STANDARD ARABIC WORD FOR GOD AND IS USED BY ARAB CHRISTIANS AS WELL AS BY MUSLIMS.


Synonyms (OF ALLAH)
deity, Almighty, Author, Creator, Divinity, Eternal, Everlasting, Father, God, Godhead, JEHOVAH, Lord, Maker, Providence, Supreme Being, YAHWEH (also Jahveh or Yahveh)DICTIONARY.COM
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/allahWord Origin & History

1702, Arabic name for the Supreme Being, from Arabic Allahu, contr. of al-Ilahu, from al “the” + Ilah “God,” rel. to Heb. ELOHIM
Origin of Allah

Arabic Allāh ; from al, the + ilāh, god, akin to Classical Hebrew (language) eloah, God.



The Three Jewish Tribes of Madinah

Ehteshaam Gulam

I. Introduction

There are many critics of Islam (both Christian and atheist) that accuse Prophet Muhammad of being unfair with the way he dealt with the Three Jewish Tribes of Madinah. This essay will show the problems the Jewish Tribes were causing for the Muslims, while in Madinah and clearfiy some myths about certian historical events surrounding the Jews of Madinah.

The Jews of Madinah could be immigrants from Palestine or they could’ve been Arab converts to Judaism. The evidence points to them being both, Palestian Jews and Arab Jews who made up the population of Jews in Madinah. But in any case, they had their own Torah, they followed Jewish laws, they followed Jewish holidays, etc. They were Jewish…. but not all of them were ethnically Jewish. [1]

There were five main Jewish Tribes in Madinah. The most powerful were the Banu Nadir, The Banu Qurayzah and the The Banu Qaynuqa. The Jews of Yathrib (Madinah was called Yathrib before Prophet Muhammad renamed the city, Madinah. But to keep things from being confusing, I’ll refer the city to being Madinah). The Jews of Madinah were rich. The reason why is because they occupied Madinah’s most fertile agricultural lands, called “The Heights”. They became masters of Arabia’s most prized crop: dates. The Jews of Madinah were also skilled jewelers, clothiers, arm makers, and vintners. It was said that Jewish wine was considered the best
in Arabia. The five largest Jewish Tribes in Madinah enjoyed a complete monopoly over Yathrib’s economy.

The Jews of Madinah were also expecting a powerful Prophet to arise among them. The Jews believed that a Powerful Prophet would arise. Several Jewish rabbis and scholars knew of this. In fact it is said by Ibn Sad one Jewish Rabbi came to Muhammad when he was a baby and looked at him. What he said was amazing: He added: “Verily the Jews are his enemies, and he is the Prophet of these people; he is an Arab and the Jews are jealous of him wishing that he should have been an Israelite. So guard your brother’s son.” [2]

II. The Consitution of Madinah

When Prophet Muhammad came to Madinah he made a treaty with the Jews, Arabs, the Ansar and the Muhajjurn. This treaty or contract is also known as the Consituionof Madinah (interestingly enough, it is considered the world’s first consitution). The Treaty went like this:

” In the Name of God the Compassionate, the Mericiful. This is a document from Muhammad the Prophet (governing the relations) between the  believers and Muslims of Quraysh and Yathrib, and those who followed them and joined them and labored with them. They are one community (ummah) to the exclusion of all men….. The believers shall not leave anyone destitute among them by no paying his redemption money or bloodwit in kindness.” (From Ibn Ishaq 231-232)

The Consitution of Medinah goes on to detail

You can read more about the Treaty here. However as will be seen, the three main Jewish tribes of Madinah (The Banu Nadir, The Banu Qurayzah and the The Banu Qaynuqa) broke the treaty.

There was a Jewish Rabbi named Abdullah bin Salam. Abdullah was very knowlegedgable on the Torah and the Jewish religion. When he heard that Prophet Muhammad was forced to leave Mecca and came to Madinah he came rushing to Prophet Muhammad. He wanted to see if Prophet Muhammad was a true Prophet or not. To see if Prophet Muhammad was truthful or not, Abdullah asked Prophet Muhammad three questions which nobody knows except if he is a real Prophet from God. The following Hadith shows this:

Narrated Anas: ‘Abdullah bin Salam heard the news of the arrival of Allah’s Apostle (at Medina) while he was on a farm collecting its fruits. So he came to the Prophet and said, “I will ask you about three things which nobody knows unless he be a prophet. Firstly, what is the first portent of the Hour? What is the first meal of the people of Paradise? And what makes a baby look like its father or mother?’. The Prophet said, “Just now Gabriel has informed me about that.” ‘Abdullah said, “Gabriel?” The Prophet said, “Yes.” ‘Abdullah said, “He, among the angels is the enemy of the Jews.” On that the Prophet recited this Holy Verse:–

“Whoever is an enemy to Gabriel (let him die in his fury!) for he has brought it (i.e. Qur’an) down to your heart by Allah’s permission.” (2.97) Then he added, “As for the first portent of the Hour, it will be a fire that will collect the people from the East to West. And as for the first meal of the people of Paradise, it will be the caudite (i.e. extra) lobe of the fish liver. And if a man’s discharge proceeded that of the woman, then the child resembles the father, and if the woman’s discharge proceeded that of the man, then the child resembles the mother.” On hearing that, ‘Abdullah said, “I testify that None has the right to be worshipped but Allah, and that you are the Apostle of Allah, O, Allah’s Apostle; the Jews are liars, and if they should come to know that I have embraced Islam, they would accuse me of being a liar.” In the meantime some Jews came (to the Prophet) and he asked them, “What is ‘Abdullah’s status amongst you?” They replied, “He is the best amongst us, and he is our chief and the son of our chief.” The Prophet said, “What would you think if ‘Abdullah bin Salam embraced Islam?” They replied, “May Allah protect him from this!” Then ‘Abdullah came out and said, “I testify that None has the right to be worshipped but Allah and that Muhammad is the Apostle of Allah.” The Jews then said, “Abdullah is the worst of us and the son of the worst of us,” and disparaged him. On that ‘Abdullah said, “O Allah’s Apostle! This is what I was afraid of!” (Bukhari Volume 6, Book 60, Number 7)

The Jews knew that Prophet Muhammad was the prophet they were expecting according to their Torah. Prophet Muhammad went to a Jewish seminary, where he challenged the rabbis:”Bring forward the most learned among you before me.” When that man came forward, he and Muhammad spoke in private. Finally Muhammad asked him, “Do you know that I am the Apostle of Allah?” The rabbi answered, “By Allah! Yes, and the people know what I know.Verily your attributes and qualities are clearly mentioned in the Torah, butthey are jealous of you.” (Ibn Sa’d, vol. I, 188..)

So the Jews knew about the Prophet, they knew that he was the Prophet according to their own Torah. However they still rejected Prophet Muhammad, despite this.

III. The Banu Qaynuqa

Prophet did not make entering Islam a condition for any one of the Jews to stay in Madinah. The Consitution of Madinah or the treaty allowed the Jews to stay in Madinah and practice their religion. The reason for the Banu Qaynuqa Jews expulsion was the aggression which they showed. This resulted in a breach of the internal security of Madinah.

After the Muslim Victory at the Battle of Badr, the Jews of Banu Qaynuqa showed anger and jealousy towards the Muslims and Prophet Muhammad. It is also said in Ibn Ishaq that a Qaynuqa Jew tore off a woman’s dress in a market place in Madinah. The woman then ran away screaming, naked. A Muslim then fought the Qaynuqa Jew. This started a bitter rivary between the Qaynuqa Jews and Prophet Muhammad. The Banu Qaynuqa were the first of the Jews to break their agreement with the Muslims and go to war and had to be dealt with swiftly so as to quash any ideas of the other Jewish tribes to instigate a war against the Muslims.[7] The Banu Qaynuqa betrayed their oat of mutual protection and shown themselves to be against Prophet Muhamad. Because of their treason, Prophet Muhammad expelled the Banu Qaynuqa Jews from Madinah. They were allowed to take most of their property with them. [8]

IV. The Banu Nadir

The Banu Nadir broke the treaty with Prophet Muhammad by first betraying him, then trying to kill him thren refusing to make another peace treaty with him. First the Banu Nadir attempted to kill Prophet Muhammad two times. One day Some Jews of the Banu Nadir had decided to kill the Prophet by dropping a large stone on his head one day. The Muslims heard about this and told Muhammad. Despite the Jews constant attacks and assisination attempts Prophet Muhamamd merely told them to leave Madinah. [3] The Jews of Banu Nadir tried to kill Prophet Muhammad a second time as well. As Bismikaallahuma says:

The second attempt was reported by Ibn Ishaq, who was followed by most of the other Sirah writers. The Prophet went to Banu al Nadir to ask them for help in paying the blood money for two men from a tribe which was party to the treaty, whom Amr ibn Umayyah al Damari had killed by mistake following the incident of al Raji. When he came to Banu al Nadir, he sat down against a wall. They were about to drop a rock onto him and kill him, but he learnt of that through divine inspiration. He left them quickly and went back to Madinah, and he ordered that they should be besieged. They agreed to a peace treaty after a siege lasting six days, on the condition that they could take with them whatever their camels could carry. [4] The isnad of this report ends with Yazid ibn Ruman, who is a lesser tabi’i, but it could be strengthened by other similar reports. Indeed, it was followed by the report of ?Urwah ibn al Zubayr in the Maghazi of Musa ibn ?Uqbah. [5] The Banu Nadir also started to support and help the Qurash of Mecca
against Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him). So we can see the Banu Nadir was not an innocent tribe. The Banu Nadir started to fight against Prophet Muhammad [6]. Banu Nadir already had a peace treaty with the Muslims, until they broke it. The Banu Nadir left Madinah for Khaybar (a place in Northern Madinah) taking their wealth and property with them. So the Banu Nadir were not some innocent tribe. Prophet Muhammad however was merciful to them however and let them leave. 

V. The Banu Qurayzah

After the Exile of the Banu Qaynua and the Banu Nadir Jewish Tribes, some of those Jews who remained approached the Quraysh, offering an alliance against Muhammad and the Muslims. The Quraysh readily accepted. So these Jews of Qurayzah were guilty of treason. Then to make matters even worse, a tribe of Jews in Medina, the Banu Qurayzah, broke their covenant with the Prophet of Islam (perhaps after reflecting upon the fate of the Banu Qaynuqa and Banu Nadir) and began collaborating with the Quraysh of Mecca. Madinah was constantly under attack by the Meccans. The Banu Qurayzah were helping the Meccans, despite their agreement not to. The Banu Qurayzah were gulity of treason. Instead of living in peace with the Muslims they along Qurash of Mecca wanted to destroy Islam. They too broke the treaty they signed.

The Banu Qurayzah started to fight aganist Prophet Muhammad, even after he allowed them to stay in Madinah when they broke their treaty [7] The reason for the campaign against the Jews of Banu Qurayzah goes back to Banu Qurayzah’s breaking of the treaty between themselves and the Prophet. After the Seige of the Banu Qurayzah they
finally surrendered to Prophet Muhammad.

Prophet Muhammad then decided that Sa’d ibn Muaz should decide the fate of the Banu Qurayzah. Sa’d decided that the men warriors should be killed and that their women and children should be taken as slaves. The following is illustrated below:

Narrated Abu Sa’id Al-Khudri: When the tribe of Bani Quraiza was ready to accept Sad’s judgment, Allah’s Apostle sent for Sad who was near to him. Sad came, riding a donkey and when he came near, Allah’s Apostle said (to the Ansar), “Stand up for your leader.” Then Sad came and sat beside Allah’s Apostle who said to him. “These people are ready to accept your judgment.” Sad said, “I give the judgment that their warriors should be killed and their children and women should be taken as prisoners.” The Prophet then remarked, “O Sad! You have judged amongst them with (or similar to) the judgment of the King Allah.” (Bukhari Volume 4, Book 52, Number 280)

Narrated Abu Said Al-Khudri: Some people (i.e. the Jews of Bani bin Quraiza) agreed to accept the verdict of Sad bin Muadh so the Prophet sent for him (i.e. Sad bin Muadh). He came riding a donkey, and when he approached the Mosque, the Prophet said, “Get up for the best amongst you.” or said, “Get up for your chief.” Then the Prophet said, “O Sad! These people have agreed to accept your verdict.” Sad said, “I judge that their warriors should be killed and their children and women should be taken as captives.” The Prophet said, “You have given a judgment similar to Allah’s Judgment (or the King’s judgment).” (Bukhari Volume 5, Book 58, Number 148)

It has been narrated on the authority of A’isha who said: Sa’d was wounded on the day of the Battle of the Ditch. A man from the Quraish called Ibn al-Ariqah shot at him an arrow which pierced the artery in the middle of his forearm. The Messenger of Allah (may peacce be upon him) pitched a tent for him in the mosque and would inquire after him being in close proximity. When he returned from the Ditch and laid down his arms and took a bath, the angel Gabriel appeared to him and he was removing dust from his hair (as if he had just returned from the battle). The latter said: You have laid down arms. By God, we haven’t (yet) laid them down. So march against them. The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) asked: Where? He poirftad to Banu Quraiza. So the Messenger of Allah (may peace he upon him) fought against them. They surrendered at the command of the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him), but he referred the decision about them to Sa’d who said: I decide about them that those of them who can fight be killed, their women and children taken prisoners and their properties distributed (among the Muslims). (Muslim Book 019, Number 4370)

Plus it was not Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) who issued the order; it was Saad bin Muadh whom the Jews selected to judge their fate. It is clear that Saad ibn Muaz(R) have administered the punishment in accordance with Jewish law as found in the Torah. The law is:

“When the Lord thy God hath delivered it unto thy hands, thou shalt smite every male therein with the edge of the sword: but the women, and the little ones and the cattle, and all that is in the city, even all the spoil thereof, shalt thou take unto thyself.” (Deuteronomy 20:12)

It is therefore clear that Muslims are not to be blamed for administering a Law that is found within the Jewish scripture itself upon the Jews who had earlier agreed to submit to Saad ibn Muaz’s judgement. The Prophet(P) neither influenced the decision nor was he involved in any stage of the decision-making, as the representatives of Banu Qurayzah did not seek his judgement.

It is commonly said that anywhere between 400 to 900 Jewish Men were killed. But this is not true. We don’t know how many Jewish men were killed, but the number is certainly not as high as 500 to 900. 

VI. The Jews of Khaybar

Banu Nadir in Khaybar, who were inciting hostilities along with neighboring Arab tribes against Prophet Muhammad.I n addition, the Nadir paid Arabian tribes to go to war against the Muslims. Bribing Banu Ghatafan and the Banu Asad with half their harvest, Banu Nadir secured 2,000 men 300 horsemen from the tribe to attack Prophet Muhammad. The Banu Nadir bribed many Arab tribes with wealth to fight against Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him).

When Prophet Muhammad heard about this, he made his trip to Khaybar (a place in Northern Arabia) to deal with the attacks of the Arab Tribes and the Jews upon the

The siege of Khaybar lasted a month. Eventually the Jews of Khaybar came to Prophet Muhammad and made a peace treaty with him. However they broke the treaty with the Prophet:

Narrated Abdullah Ibn Umar: The Prophet fought with the people of Khaybar, and captured their palm-trees and land, and forced them to remain confined to their fortresses. So they concluded a treaty of peace providing that gold, silver and weapons would go to the Apostle of Allah (peace_be_upon_him), and whatever they took away on their camels would belong to them, on condition that they would not hide and carry away anything. If they did (so), there would be no protection for them and no treaty (with Muslims).

They carried away a purse of Huyayy ibn Akhtab who was killed before (the battle of) Khaybar. He took away the ornaments of Banu an-Nadir when they were expelled. The Prophet (peace_be_upon_him) asked Sa’yah: Where is the purse of Huyayy ibn Akhtab?

He replied: The contents of this purse were spent on battles and other expenses. (Later on) they found the purse. So he killed Ibn AbulHuqayq, captured their women and children, and intended to deport them. They said: Muhammad, leave us to work on this land; we shall have half (of the produce) as you wish, and you will have half. The Apostle of Allah (peace_be_upon_him) used to make a contribution of eighty wasqs of dates and twenty wasqs of wheat to each of his wives. (Sunan Abu Dawud, Book 19, Number 3000)

What this hadith states is this:

-The Muslims and the Jews at Khaybar were already at war
– The Muslims and the Jews agreed to a peace treaty that ended the war.
– The peace treaty stated that the Jews must not hide any treasure from the Muslims; otherwise this would be considered a violation of the treaty.
– If the treaty is broken, then that means that the other party is a war combatant who must be fought and killed.
– Kinana broke the treaty by hiding the treasure unjustifiably due to his greed.
– Kinana was treated as a war combatant because he violated one of the conditions of the peace treaty.
– War combatants are to be killed.
– Kinana knew that what he would do would lead to his death if he were to get caught. No one forced him to lie or to be greedy. It was his choice.
– Kinana’s death was justifiable.

In May 629, the Muslims defeated several Jewish tribes (including the Banu Nadir) at the Battle of Khaybar. The rest of Khaybar fell to the Muslims. The people of Fidak, to the north of Khaybar, hastened to ask for peace, and to be allowed to leave in safety, and leave their wealth in return for that. The Prophet agreed to their request.Ibn Hisham, al Sirah, 32/449

The Jews of Khaybar went into exile like the Banu Nadir (Ibn Sa’d Volume 2 page 132 and 133). It is alleged that there were treasures found in Khaybar. The Jewish farmers asked to stay in Khaybar and Prophet Muhammad let them stay (Ibn Sa’d, vol. II, 136.)


Notes and Bibliography

[1] For a more detailed explanation of the Jews of Madinah please see A History of the Jews in Arabia (1988) by Gordon Newby, Jews and Arabs (1970) by
S.D. Goiten, etc.

[2] Ibn Sa’d Volume 1 page 177

[3] Ibn Ishaq page 504.

[4] Ibn Ishaq, al Sirah, 3/191

[5] Ibn Hajar, Fath al Bari, 7/331

[6] See the Hadith Collection, Muslim Book 019, Number 4364

[7] Ibid. also see Ibn Ishaq page 363

[8] See Ibn Ishaq pages 545-547.

Further Reading

The Banu Nadir Jews


The Banu Qunayqa Jews


The Banu Qurazah Jews 

The Jews of Khaybar


Source: http://www.answering-christian-claims.com/The_Jewish_Tribes_Of_Madinah.html



Either the Devil really has perfected the art of diabolical mimicry or there is a mystery to solve here. Let’s review the evidence:

· Jesus is the saviour of mankind, God made man, the Son of God equal with the Father; so is
· Jesus is born of a mortal virgin who after her death ascends to heaven and is honoured as a
divine being; so is Osiris-Dionysus.
· Jesus is born in a cave on 25 December or 6 January, as is Osiris-Dionysus.
· The birth of Jesus is prophesied by a star,- so is the birth of Osiris-Dionysus.
· Jesus is born in Bethlehem, which was shaded by a grove sacred to Osiris-Dionysus.
· The Magi bring Jesus gifts of gold, frankincense and myrrh, which a sixth-century BCE Pagan
tells us is the way to worship God.
· Jesus is baptized, a ritual practised for centuries in the Mysteries.
· The holy man who baptizes Jesus with water has the same name as a Pagan god of water and is
born on the summer solstice celebrated as a Pagan water festival.
· Jesus offers his followers elemental baptisms of water, air and fire, as did the Pagan Mysteries.
· Jesus is portrayed as a quiet man with long hair and a beard; so is Osiris-Dionysus.
· Jesus turns water into wine at a marriage on the same day that Osiris-Dionysus was previously
believed to have turned water into wine at a marriage.
· Like the sages of the Mysteries, Jesus is a wandering wonder-worker who is not honoured in
his home town.
· Jesus is accused of licentious behaviour, as were the followers of Osiris-Dionysus.
· Jesus is not at first recognized as a divinity by his disciples, but then is transfigured before
them in all his glory, – the same is true of Osiris-Dionysus.
· Jesus is surrounded by 12 disciples; so is Osiris-Dionysus.
· Jesus rides triumphantly into town on a donkey while crowds wave branches, as does Osiris-
· Jesus is a just man unjustly accused of heresy and bringing a new religion, as is Osiris-
· Jesus attacks hypocrites, stands up to tyranny and willingly goes to his death predicting he will
rise again in three days, as do Pagan sages.
· Jesus is equated with bread and wine, as is Osiris-Dionysus.
· Jesus1 disciples symbolically eat bread and drink wine to commune with him, as do the
followers of Osiris-Dionysus.
· Jesus is hung on a tree or crucified, as is Osiris-Dionysus.
· Jesus dies as a sacrifice to redeem the sins of the world; so does Osiris-Dionysus.
· Jesus’ corpse is wrapped in linen and anointed with myrrh, as is the corpse of Osiris-Dionysus.
· After his death Jesus descends to hell, then on the third day resurrects before his disciples and
ascends into heaven, where he is enthroned by God and waits to reappear at the end of time as a
divine judge, as does Osiris-Dionysus.
· Jesus was said to have died and resurrected on exactly the same dates that the death and
resurrection of Osiris- Dionysus were celebrated.
· Jesus’ empty tomb is visited by three women followers; Osiris-Dionysus also has three women
followers who visit an empty cave.
· Through sharing in his passion Jesus offers his disciples the chance to be born again, as does

· Discounting the ‘diabolical mimicry’ argument, as all sane people must, how are we to explain these extraordinary similarities between Pagan myth and the story of Jesus?

Source: The Jesus Mysteries: Was the “Original Jesus” a Pagan God?  by Timothy Freke , Peter Gandy



Sahih International
O you who have believed, do not consume one another’s wealth unjustly but only [in lawful] business by mutual consent. And do not kill yourselves [or one another]. Indeed, Allah is to you ever Merciful.

Sahih International
And spend in the way of Allah and do not throw [yourselves] with your [own] hands into destruction [by refraining]. And do good; indeed, Allah loves the doers of good.

Sahih Bukhari Volume 008, Book 077, Hadith Number 603.

Category: Sahih Bukhari Book 77. Divine Will (Al-Qadar)
Narated By Abu Huraira : We witnessed along with Allah’s Apostle the Khaibar (campaign). Allah’s Apostle told his companions about a man who claimed to be a Muslim, “THIS MAN IS FROM THE PEOPLE OF THE FIRE.” When the battle started, the man fought very bravely and received a great number of wounds and got crippled. On that, a man from among the companions of the Prophet came and said, “O Allah’s Apostle! Do you know what the man you described as of the people of the Fire has done? He has fought very bravely for Allah’s Cause and he has received many wounds.” The Prophet said, “But he is indeed one of the people of the Fire.” Some of the Muslims were about to have some doubt about that statement. So while the man was in that state, the pain caused by the wounds troubled him so much that he put his hand into his quiver and took out an arrow and committed suicide with it. Off went some men from among the Muslims to Allah’s Apostle and said, “O Allah’s Apostle! Allah has made your statement true. So-and-so has COMMITED SUICIDE.” Allah’s Apostle said, “O Bilal! Get up and announce in public:  NONE WILL ENTER PARADISE BUT A BELIEVER, AND ALLAH MAY SUPPORT THIS RELIGION (ISLAM) WITH A WICKED MAN.”
Ini the hadith above, Prophet knew the future of this man. COMMITED SUICIDE WILL NEVER ENTER PARADISE.
Sahih Bukhari Volume 002, Book 023, Hadith Number 445.
Category: Sahih Bukhari Book 23. Funerals (Al-Janaa’iz)
Narated By Thabit bin Ad-Dahhak : The Prophet (p.b.u.h) said, “Whoever intentionally swears falsely by a religion other than Islam, then he is what he has said, (e.g. if he says, ‘If such thing is not true then I am a Jew,’ he is really a Jew).AND WHOEVER COMMITS SUICIDE WITH PIECE OF IRON WILL BE PUNISHED WITH THE SAME PIECE OF IRON IN THE HELL FIRE.” Narrated Jundab the Prophet said, “A man was inflicted with wounds and he committed suicide, and so Allah said: AND SO ALLAH SAID: MY SLAVE HAS CAUSED DEATH ON HIMSELF HURRIEDLY, SO I FORBID PARADISE FOR HIM.”
The hadith above, you see the Prophet and ALLAH both curse the SUICIDER.
Sahih Bukhari Volume 008, Book 076, Hadith Number 500.
Category: Sahih Bukhari Book 76. To Make the Heart Tender (Ar-Riqaq)
Narated By Sa’d bin Sahl As-Sa’idi : The Prophet looked at a man fighting against the pagans and he was one of the most competent persons fighting on behalf of the Muslims. The Prophet said, “Let him who wants to look at a man from the dwellers of the (Hell) Fire, look at this (man).” Another man followed him and kept on following him till he (the fighter) was injured and, seeking to die quickly, he placed the blade tip of his sword between his breasts and leaned over it till it passed through his shoulders (i.e., COMMITTED SUICIDE).” The Prophet added, “A PERSON MAY DO DEEDS THAT SEEM TO THE PEOPLE AS THE DEEDS OF THE PEOPLE OF PARADISE WHILE IN FACT, HE IS FROM THE DWELLERS OF THE (HELL) FIRE: and similarly a person may do deeds that seem to the people as the deeds of the people of the (Hell) Fire while in fact, he is from the dwellers of Paradise. Verily, the (results of) deeds done, depend upon the last actions.”
The capital leters above is related to suiced bomber. They think they will have PARADISE. But all they’ll get is HELL FIRE.
Sahih Bukhari Volume 008, Book 078, Hadith Number 647.
Category: Sahih Bukhari Book 78. Oaths and Vows
Narated By Thabit bin Ad-Dahhak : The Prophet said, “Whoever swears by a religion other than Islam, is, as he says; and AND WHOEVER COMMITS SUICIDE WITH SOMETHING, WILL BE PUNISHED WITH THE SAME THING IN THE (HELL) FIRE;  and cursing a believer is like murdering him; and whoever accuses a believer of disbelief, then it is as if he had killed him.”
More about cursing suicide:
Sahih Bukhari Volume 002, Book 023, Hadith Number 445.
Sahih Bukhari Volume 008, Book 078, Hadith Number 647.
Sahih Bukhari Volume 008, Book 077, Hadith Number 604.
Sahih Bukhari Volume 008, Book 076, Hadith Number 500.




The Battle of the Trench (Arabic: غزوة الخندق, translit.: Ghazwah al-Khandaq) also known as the Battle of the Confederates (Arabic: غزوة الاحزاب, translit.: Ghazwah al-Ahzab), was a fortnight-long siege of Yathrib (now Medina) BY ARAB AND JEWISH TRIBES. The strength of the confederate armies is estimated around 10,000 men with six hundred horses and some camels, while the Medinan defenders numbered 3,000. The battle began on March 31, 627.

The largely outnumbered defenders of Medina, mainly Muslims led by Islamic prophet Muhammad, dug a trench, which together with Medina’s natural fortifications, rendered the confederate cavalry (consisting of horses and camels) useless, locking the two sides in a stalemate. Hoping to make several attacks at once, the THE CONFEDERATES PERSUADED THE MEDINA-ALLIED BANU QURAYZA TO ATTACK THE CITY FROM THE SOUTH. . However, Muhammad’s diplomacy derailed the negotiations, and broke up the confederacy against him. The well-organized defenders, the sinking of confederate morale, and poor weather conditions caused the siege to end in a fiasco.

The siege was a “battle of wits”, in which the Muslims tactically overcame their opponents while suffering very few casualties. Efforts to defeat the Muslims failed, and Islam became influential in the region. As a consequence, the Muslim army besieged the neighbourhood of the Banu Qurayza tribe, leading to their unconditional surrender.

Sirat Muhammad by Ibn Ishaq:
When the apostle of Allah had completed the Ditch, the Quraysh came and encamped at the confluence of the Ruma torrents. Their army consisted of 10,000 men, including their allies and followers; the Ghatafan, with their followers from Najd , also came and encamped in the direction of Uhud; and AND NEWS CAME THAT THE JEWISH TRIBE OF BANU QURAYZA HAD BROKEN THEIR TREATY WITH MUHAMMAD. So the apostle of Allah marched out with his Muslims, amounting to 3,000 men in all, and encamped so that Sal was behind him and the Ditch in front, separating him from the enemy. He had ordered thechildren and the women to be shut up in the forts.

Safiya, the daughter of Abdul-Muttalib, was at the fort of Hassan, who had remainedto guard the women and children. She told how ‘A Jew approached and began to walk round the fort. Now, the BANU QURAYZA JEWS HAD BROKEN THEIR TREATY WITH THE APOSTLE OF ALLAH, AND THEIR FORT WAS TO THE REAR OF OURS. THERE WAS NO ONE TO PROTECT OUR SIDE OF THE CITY, AND THE APOSTLE OF ALLAH WAS OCCUPIED WITH THE INVADERS AND UNABLE TO COME TO OUR AID.


In the morning the Qurayza came down from their fort to surrender to the apostle of Allah, and the Aus begged that – as the apostle had dealt leniently with allies of the Khazraj – he would do the same for the allies of the Aus. The apostle said, ‘WOULD YOU LIKE ONE OF YOUR OWN PEOPLE TO DECIDE THEIR FATE’ AND THEY WELCOMED IT. He continued, ‘Then let Sad b. Muadh decide.’

They agreed.

Sad had been struck by an arrow in the defence of the Ditch, so his people mounted him on a donkey – with a leather pillow under him, for he was a stout and handsome man – and brought him to the apostle. THEY TOLD HIM, ‘DEAL KINDLY WITH THY ALLIES, BECAUSE THE APOSTLE OF ALLAH HAS APPOINTED THEE FOR THIS PURPOSE.’ But they entreated him too much and he said, ‘Sad will take good care not to incur the censure of Allah by fearing the censure of men.’ Then some of his people went away and lamented for the men of the Banu Qurayza, before Sad even reached them, because Sad had spoken thus.

When Sad appeared the apostle said to the Muslims, ‘Arise in honour of your chief!” Then Sad asked, ‘Do you covenant with Allah to abide by my decision?’ and they said, ‘We do!’ The apostle of Allah also replied, ‘Yes.’ And Sad pronounced the following sentence, ‘I DECREE THAT THE MEN BE KILLED, THE PROPERTY BE DIVIDED, AND THE WOMEN WITH THEIR CHILDREN BE MADE CAPTIVES. The apostle of Allah said, ‘Thou hast decided according to the will of Allah, above the seven firmaments.’

When Prophet Muhammad came to Madina, they made a treaty and all the JEWS were approved.
Then JEWS (include Banu Qurayza) BROKE the treaty and commited TREASON by allied with Pagan Quraisy to Attack Madina.


Bukhari: Volume 4, Book 52, Number 280:

Narrated Abu Sa’id Al-Khudri:
When the tribe of Bani Quraiza was ready to accept Sad’s judgment, Allah’s Apostle sent for Sad who was near to him. Sad came, riding a donkey and when he came near, Allah’s Apostle said (to the Ansar), “Stand up for your leader.” Then Sad came and sat beside Allah’s Apostle who said to him. “These people are ready to accept your judgment.” SAD SAID, “I GIVE THE JUDGMENT THAT THEIR WARRIORS SHOULD BE KILLED AND THEIR CHILDREN AND WOMEN SHOULD BE TAKEN AS PRISONERS.” The Prophet then remarked, “O Sad! You have judged amongst them with (or similar to) the judgment of the King Allah.”

Who is Sa’d ibn Mu’adh ?
Sa’d ibn Mu’adh (Arabic: سعد ابن معاذ) was a chief of the Banu Aus tribe in Medina and later converted to Islam. Sa’d was one of the chief of the Banu Aus, one of the two clans (non Jewish) settled in Medina.



One of the ways in which a person proves his prophethood is honesty, whether it be in regards to incidents in the past, in their everyday life, or things to come in the future.  In addition to the Quran, there are many sayings of Prophet Muhammad which contain prophecies he made in his lifetime dealing with near and distant future.  Some of them have come true, others await fulfillment.  Hudhaifah, a disciple of Prophet Muhammad, tells us:

“The Prophet once delivered a speech in front of us wherein he mentioned everything [all the signs] that would happen till the Final Hour without leaving anything.  Some of us remembered it and some forgot it.  After that speech, I used to see events taking place which were referred to in that speech, but I had forgotten them before their occurrence.  Then I would recognize such events as a man recognizes another man who has been absent and then sees and recognizes him.” (Saheeh Al-Bukhari)

There are at least 160 known and confirmed prophecies of Prophet Muhammad which were fulfilled in his lifetime and the first generation after him.[1]  We will mention some here.

(1)  Preceding the Battle of Badr, the first and decisive confrontation with pagan Meccans in the second year of migration from Mecca in 623 CE, Prophet Muhammad foretold the precise spot every pagan Meccan soldier would fall.  Those who witnessed the battle saw the prophecy come true with their own eyes.[2]

(2)  Prophet Muhammad prophesized the Battle of the Confederates (al-Ahzab) would be the last invasion the tribe of Quraish (the pagan Meccans) would launch against the Muslims.  It was fought in the fifth year of migration, 626 CE and was the last military conflict between the two sides.  All Meccans embraced Islam after a few years.[3]

(3)  The Prophet informed his daughter, Fatima, that she would be the first member of his family to die after him.  There are two prophecies in one: Fatima will outlive her father; Fatima will be the first member of his household to die after him.  Both were fulfilled.[4]

(4)  The Prophet Muhammad prophesized Jerusalem would be conquered after his death.[5]  The prophecy was fulfilled when, according to Encyclopedia Britannica: “In 638 the Muslim Caliph, Umar I, entered Jerusalem.”[6]

(5)  The Prophet Muhammad prophesized the conquest of Persia.[7]  It was conquered by Umar’s commander, Sa’ad ibn Abi Waqqas.  In the words of Encyclopedia Britannica:

“…raids into Sasanian territory were quickly taken up by Muhammad’s Caliphs, or deputies, at Medina – Abu Bakr and Umar ibn al-Khattab… an Arab victory at Al-Qadisiyyah in 636/637 was followed by the sack of the Sasanian winter capital at Ctesiphon on the Tigris.  The Battle of Nahavand in 642 completed the Sasanids’ vanquishment.”[8]

(6)  The Prophet Muhammad prophesized the conquest of Egypt.[9]  In the words of Encyclopedia Britannica:

“Amr… undertook the invasion in 639 with a small army of some 4,000 men (later reinforced).  With what seems astonishing speed the Byzantine forces were routed and had withdrawn from Egypt by 642… Various explanations have been given for the speed with which the conquest was achieved.”[10]

(7)  The Prophet foretold confrontation with the Turks.[11]  The first conflict took place in the caliphate of Umar in 22 AH.[12]

(8)  The Prophet foretold the first maritime battle to be undertaken by Muslims would be witnessed by Umm Haram, the first woman to participate in a naval expedition.  He also prophesied the first assault on Constantinople.[13]

The first maritime battle in Muslim history was in 28 AH in the rule of Mu’awiya.  It was witnessed by Umm Haram as foretold by Prophet Muhammad, and Yazid ibn Mu’awiya led the first attack on Constantinople in 52 AH.[14]

(9)  The prophecy that Rome, Persia, and Yemen will be conquered was made during the Battle of Confederates in 626 CE,[15]  under extreme circumstances, as is described by the Quran:

“[Remember] when they came at you from above you and from below you, and when eyes shifted [in fear], and hearts reached the throats and you assumed about God [various] assumptions.  There, the believers were tested and shaken with a severe shaking.  And [remember] when the hypocrites and those in whose hearts is disease said, ‘God and His Messenger did not promise us except delusion.’” (Quran 33:10-12)

(10) Prophet Muhammad prophesized an imposter claiming to speak in the name of God would be killed at the hands of a righteous man in Muhammad’s lifetime.[16]  Al-Aswad al-Ansi, an imposter prophet in Yemen, was killed in the Prophet’s lifetime by Fayruz al-Daylami.[17]


There are at least an additional 28 prophecies pertaining to the end times which are awaiting fulfillment.

Indeed these well-documented prophecies are clear proofs of the Prophethood of Muhammad, may the mercy and blessings of God be upon him.  There is no possible way that the Prophet could have knowledge of these incidents except if it were inspired by God Himself, all in order to further prove the authenticity of the Muhammad, that he was not an imposter, but rather a Prophet raised by God to deliver humanity from Hellfire.


[1] They are collected by Dr. Muhammad Wali-ullah al-Nadavi in his Master’s thesis entitled, ‘Nubuwwat al-Rasul,’ from al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

[2] Saheeh Muslim, Abu Ya’la.

[3] Saheeh Al-Bukhari, Bazzar, and Haithami.

[4] ‘Sharh’ Saheeh Muslim,’ by Imam al-Nawawi.

[5] Saheeh Al-Bukhari.

[6] “Jerusalem.” Encyclopædia Britannica from Encyclopædia Britannica Premium Service. (http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-61909)

[7] Saheeh Muslim.

[8] “Iran.” Encyclopædia Britannica from Encyclopædia Britannica Premium Service. (http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-32160)

[9] Saheeh Muslim.

[10] “Egypt.” Encyclopædia Britannica from Encyclopædia Britannica Premium Service. (http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-22358)

[11] Saheeh Al-Bukhari, Saheeh Muslim.

[12] Ibn Kathir’s ‘al-Bidaya wal-Nihaya.’

[13] Saheeh Al-Bukhari, Saheeh Muslim.

[14] Ibn Kathir’s ‘al-Bidaya wal-Nihaya.’

[15] Saheeh Al-Bukhari.

[16] Saheeh Al-Bukhari.

[17] Encyclopedia of Islam.